In many cases the United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) was denied involvement in South Sudan affairs on many occasions. As we read out that UN Mission in South Sudan has authorized its force to involve in stopping the continued fighting in Rumbek among two Communities in Western Lakes communal violence. (Gak and Manuer communities, about 100 kilometres north of Rumbek.
This quotation sources from Radio Tamazuj and Eye Radio quoted date 3/12/2019 as references sources)
My response relates to the above mentioned
Question, why the Government of South Sudan failed to stop the violence among two communities Gak and Manuer and what is behind the Government silence?
My personal opinion is that those two Communities involved in violence at the movement in Western Lakes Rumbek in my thinking there is nothing to do with political disputes behind this fighting to lead to civil war to involve UN Mission.
These all clans are one tribe (Dinka ethnic group of South Sudan), How can a big Organisation like UN solve these issues of certain clans and their disputes came as a result of the cattle raids and revenge as the main source in their perspective cultures .
Social issue behind fighting and attached with culture belief on cattle
These clans they marry by cow or cattle, I think it is a social issue even if the UN bring those communities together today to reconcile themselves they will still hate themselves , because previous revenge and raiding of cattle will continue.
This issue of cattle raiding should be solved by Government of South Sudan, it doesn’t need the UN to get involved. By all means I condemned this involvement as there is no strong reason to convince anyone on that, because there are four levels of Governments that should be used.
- Federal level has high authority on its States Government to be mandated by authority in the Country to stop these internal issues.
- State Government is presentation of the Federal Government in their States and they have full authority to deal with internal issues
- Local Government are eyewitness of States and the Government can use its authority to bring two communities to reconcile themselves. I think UNMISS went out from their boundaries to be involved in internal issue as happening in Rumbek (Bahr el Ghazal).
- Traditional leaders of the two communities must be brought to justice to stop the violence
Bahr el-Ghazal was not affected by ongoing civil war in South Sudan
In esense Bahr el-Ghazal Region was not affected by civil war continue in the South Sudan from 2013-2019 as a main issue of UN presence in South Sudan.
UN TOOK THE WORK OF THE GOVERNMENT OF SOUTH SUDAN
If there is internal fighting among the tribes or clans relating to cattle raiding or land grabbing resulting in fighting themselves this issue should be sorted out by the Government of South Sudan without involvement of outsides forces to be deployed in the villages or Counties which is under Government control for example United Nations peacekeeper in South Sudan has a boundaries to entering into the tribes issue or clans disputes among themselves if the result of conflict relate two different Communities or tribes fought themselves for example in Upper Nile States there is conflict between three Shilluk ethnic group and Dinka of Upper Nile has issue of grabbing land and Nuer and Dinka of Unity State has same issues of Grabbing Land in this issue UN have a right to involved in that issue areas to stop disputes through crossing border between the tribes would be the helper as I mentioned some issue bring tribes to fights in South Sudan is land issue and barbaric killing as cleans among different communities as happened in 2013 Nuer was targeted in Juba and many lives was lost and Upper Nile Shilluk was targeted by other Community in many lives was lost till today. UN came to south Sudan as resulted of civil war as I mentioned page 6 to protect civilian which would be targeted and cleans as result of war.
(PoC) in Malakal on 17-18 February, which claimed the lives of at least 30 displaced people and injured a further 123.
WHAT IS THE ROOT CAUSE OF COMMUNAL VIOLENCE IN RUMBEK?
These issue communal violence in Rumbek is back to weakness of the Government of South Sudan and Juba knows the reason why the two communities are fighting each other’s
Cattle raids and revenge as result of stolen cows among themselves.
GOVERNMENT SILENCE, BECAUSE IT’S POLITICAL POSITIONS WOULD NOT BE AFFECTED TOWARD BAHR EL GHAZAL PEOPLE
- The Government is worried if it uses force may cause Dinka Bahr el-Ghazal more political issue within Dinka wing of the governance at the movement during the Bahr el- Ghazal in power ruling South Sudan.
- The Government of South Sudan don’t want to use forces directly , because the government know if its uses it to disarmament two communities who are confronting each other’s the result in blame going on government especially the president at the movement from Bahr el- Ghazal all will be affected disarmament are sons and daughters of Bahr el-Ghazal will be the victims if they misused army so there is no interest of Bahr el Ghazal in that communal violence going on in Rumbek
- The Government of South Sudan wants to use the UN as it’s component indirectly to solve this problem through reconciliation, peace conference although the Government of South Sudan don’t want UN presents in South Sudan not to show its weakness to the World or international communities that the government of South Sudan has no capability to protect its citizens as result of war has probe the and people of South Sudan scattered in every corner of the earth.
- Maybe UN doesn’t know much about the Dinka Culture perspective when the issue relate to cattle and other things behind the death toll in Rumbek.
- And maybe the UN is looking at it as threats of internal security for the citizen, but issue is culture conceptions relating to marriage issue if the boy want with many cows for example behind one girl the dowry should be paid 200 or 250 cows if a man wants to marry from where do the man who wants to marry to get huge amount of cows for the girl waiting for him.
- These issues of raid cattle are constant in five tribes in South Sudan
- Dinka number one
- Murle number two
- Nuer Number three
- Mundari number four
- Toposa number five
Those are nomadic tribes they don’t player in issues cattle raids each other’s as normal in their life relate to culture of heroes.
- The communal violence is misconducted or mismanagement by the Government itself if Nations taking the rules of Government to involve to stop the fight among the tribes means the Government of South Sudan has failed to protect its citizens living in their govern –ship.
- The Government of South Sudan don’t want to engage itself especially in Bahr el- Ghazal, because of political issues.
- The Government of South Sudan can use its authority as sovereignty State to authorize the UN to help the Government to stop the violence among its citizens in Bahr el-Ghazal not in other areas in South Sudan for example Upper Nile has been in Conflict most 10 years we didn’t seen Government engagement to mandate UN to intervene cleanse happening between two rival communities Shullik and Dinka Upper, because issue of Grabbing Land of Shullik to Dinka Upper Nile. Same in Rumbek the Government don’t want to involve too much, because damage political entire Bahr el-Ghazal can cause displace its own real citizen.
- My advice to UN Mission in South Sudan most looking after the people who displaced by civil war who are under UN protection camps
- UN must be aware if there two tribes are different in culture are involved in the violence maybe UN can involve to separate those Communities from fighting each other because it will cost the UN in humanitarian relief and settlement in UN camps in area of displacing fear of the fighting continues.
- The Government of South Sudan at the moment know that the majority in the army are one tribe special Bahr el-Ghazal if the Government try to use force most who will die in disarmament of the two communities are one tribe into besides that is why the government dodging not to involve to dissolve this issue bloodshed as result communal violence
- UN must focus on its mandate to protect the citizens who are victims by civil war from 2013- 2019 the issue of raiding cattle are internal issues.
- UN must be fair enough not taking side in issue of raiding cattle
Including appreciated the rules of UNMISS in South Sudan, but UNMISS should focusing on its boundaries not be used by someone else to gain political interest.
References sources: Radio TamazujTuesday 3/12/219
The United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) said it had re-deployed 75 troops to halt communal clashes and revenge attacks in Western Lakes State.
Eye Radio Sources: 3rd December 2019
Nepali peacekeepers head to W. Lakes to quell violence
Please if you want to know more in information go to website: https://casebook.icrc.org/case-study/south-sudan-attack-malakal-un-protection-site the reported prepared by:
Mr. Tadesse Kebebew, LL.M., student at the Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights, under the supervision of Professor Marco Sassòli and Ms. Yvette Issar, research assistant, both at the University of Geneva.
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