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In many cases the United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) was denied involvement in South Sudan affairs on many occasions. As we read out that UN Mission in South Sudan has authorized its force to involve in stopping the continued fighting in Rumbek among two Communities in Western Lakes communal violence.  (Gak and Manuer communities, about 100 kilometres north of Rumbek.

This quotation sources from Radio Tamazuj and Eye Radio quoted date 3/12/2019 as references sources) 

My response relates to the above mentioned

Question, why the Government of South Sudan failed to stop the violence among two communities Gak and Manuer and what is behind the Government silence? 

My personal opinion  is that those two Communities involved in violence at the movement in Western Lakes Rumbek in my thinking there is nothing to do with  political disputes behind this fighting to lead to civil war to involve UN Mission.

These all clans are one tribe (Dinka ethnic group of South Sudan), How can  a big Organisation like UN solve these issues of certain clans and their disputes came  as a result of the cattle raids and revenge as  the main source  in their perspective cultures .   

Social issue behind fighting and attached with culture belief on cattle    

These  clans they  marry by cow or  cattle, I think it is a social  issue even if the UN bring those communities together today to reconcile themselves they will still hate themselves , because previous revenge and raiding of cattle will  continue.

This issue of cattle raiding should be solved by Government of South Sudan, it doesn’t need the UN to get involved. By all means I condemned this involvement as there is no strong reason to convince anyone on that, because there are four levels of Governments that should be used.

  • Federal level has high authority on its States Government to be mandated by authority in the Country to stop these internal issues. 
  • State Government  is presentation of the Federal Government  in their States and they have full authority to deal  with internal issues
  • Local Government are eyewitness of States and the Government can use its authority to bring two communities to reconcile themselves. I think  UNMISS went out from their boundaries to be involved in internal issue as happening in Rumbek (Bahr el Ghazal). 
  • Traditional leaders  of the two communities must be brought to justice to stop the violence  

Bahr el-Ghazal was not affected by ongoing civil war in South Sudan

In esense Bahr el-Ghazal Region was not affected by civil war continue in the South Sudan from 2013-2019 as a main issue of UN presence in South Sudan. 

UN TOOK THE WORK OF THE GOVERNMENT OF SOUTH SUDAN  

If there  is internal fighting among  the tribes or clans relating to  cattle raiding or land grabbing resulting in fighting themselves this issue  should be sorted out by the Government of South Sudan without involvement of outsides  forces to be deployed in the villages or Counties which is under Government control for example United Nations  peacekeeper in South Sudan has a boundaries to entering into the tribes  issue or clans disputes among themselves if the result  of conflict relate two different Communities or tribes  fought themselves for example in Upper Nile States there is conflict  between three Shilluk ethnic group and Dinka of Upper Nile has issue  of grabbing land and Nuer and Dinka of Unity State has same issues of Grabbing Land in this issue  UN have a right to involved in that issue areas to stop disputes through crossing border between the tribes  would be the helper as I mentioned  some issue bring tribes to fights in South Sudan is land issue and barbaric  killing as cleans among different communities as happened in 2013 Nuer was targeted in Juba and many lives  was lost and Upper Nile Shilluk was targeted by other Community in many lives was lost till today. UN came to south Sudan as resulted of civil war as I mentioned page 6 to protect civilian which would be targeted and cleans as result of war. 

(PoC) in Malakal on 17-18 February, which claimed the lives of at least 30 displaced people and injured a further 123.

Reference ( https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2016/jun/22/malakal-camp-south-sudan-un-united-nations-says-response-violence-marred-by-confusion#img-1

WHAT IS THE ROOT CAUSE OF COMMUNAL VIOLENCE IN RUMBEK?

These issue communal violence in Rumbek is back to weakness of the Government of South Sudan and Juba knows the reason why the two communities are fighting each other’s 

Cattle raids and revenge as result of stolen cows   among themselves. 

GOVERNMENT SILENCE, BECAUSE IT’S   POLITICAL POSITIONS WOULD NOT BE AFFECTED TOWARD BAHR EL GHAZAL PEOPLE

  1. The Government  is worried if it  uses force may cause Dinka  Bahr el-Ghazal more political issue  within Dinka wing of the governance at  the movement during the Bahr el- Ghazal in  power ruling South Sudan.
  2. The Government  of South Sudan don’t want to use forces  directly , because the government know if its uses it  to disarmament two communities who are confronting each other’s  the result in blame going on government especially the president  at the movement from Bahr el- Ghazal all will be affected disarmament are sons and daughters  of Bahr el-Ghazal will be the victims if they misused army so there is no interest of Bahr el Ghazal in  that communal violence going on in Rumbek
  3.  The Government of South Sudan wants  to use the UN as it’s component indirectly  to solve this problem through reconciliation, peace  conference although the Government of South Sudan don’t want UN presents  in South Sudan not to show its weakness to the World or international communities that  the government of South Sudan has no capability to protect its citizens as result of war  has probe the and people of South Sudan scattered in every corner of the earth.              
  4. Maybe UN doesn’t know much about the Dinka Culture perspective when the issue relate to cattle and other things behind the death toll in Rumbek.
  5.  And maybe the UN is looking at it as threats of internal security  for the citizen, but issue is culture conceptions relating to marriage issue if  the boy want with many cows for example behind one girl the dowry should be paid  200 or 250 cows if a man wants to marry from where do the man who wants to marry to get  huge amount of cows for the girl waiting for him. 
  • These  issues of raid  cattle are constant in  five tribes in South Sudan
  • Dinka  number one 
  • Murle  number two 
  • Nuer Number three 
  • Mundari number four 
  • Toposa  number five 

Those  are nomadic  tribes they don’t  player in issues cattle raids  each other’s as normal in their life  relate to culture of heroes.   

  1. The communal violence is misconducted or mismanagement by  the Government itself if Nations taking the rules of Government to involve  to stop the fight among the tribes means the Government of South Sudan has failed to protect  its citizens living in their govern –ship.
  2. The Government of South Sudan don’t want to engage itself especially in Bahr el- Ghazal, because of political issues. 
  3. The Government  of South Sudan can use its  authority as sovereignty State  to authorize the UN to help the Government  to stop the violence among its citizens in Bahr el-Ghazal  not in other areas in South Sudan for example Upper Nile  has been in Conflict most 10 years we didn’t seen Government  engagement to mandate UN to intervene cleanse happening between two rival communities Shullik and Dinka Upper, because issue of Grabbing Land of Shullik to Dinka  Upper Nile. Same in Rumbek the Government don’t want to involve too much, because damage political entire Bahr el-Ghazal can cause displace its own real citizen. 
  4. My  advice  to UN Mission  in South Sudan most  looking after the people who displaced  by civil war who are under UN protection camps
  5.  UN  must  be aware if  there two tribes are different in culture  are involved in the violence maybe UN can involve  to separate those Communities from fighting each other because  it will cost the UN in humanitarian relief and settlement in UN camps in area of displacing fear  of the fighting continues. 
  6. The Government  of South Sudan  at the moment know that the majority  in the army are one tribe special Bahr el-Ghazal  if the Government try to use force most who will die  in disarmament of the two communities are one tribe into besides  that is why the government dodging not to involve to dissolve this issue bloodshed  as result communal violence         
  7. UN must focus on its mandate to protect the citizens who are victims by civil war from 2013- 2019 the issue of raiding cattle are internal issues.  
  8. UN  must  be fair  enough not taking side in issue  of raiding cattle

Including appreciated the rules of UNMISS in South Sudan, but UNMISS should focusing on its boundaries not be used by someone else to gain political interest.   

References sources:  Radio TamazujTuesday 3/12/219  

The United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) said it had re-deployed 75 troops to halt communal clashes and revenge attacks in Western Lakes State.

Eye Radio Sources: 3rd December 2019

Nepali peacekeepers head to W. Lakes to quell violence

Please if you want to know more in information go to website: https://casebook.icrc.org/case-study/south-sudan-attack-malakal-un-protection-site  the reported prepared by: 

 Mr. Tadesse Kebebew, LL.M., student at the Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights, under the supervision of Professor Marco Sassòli and Ms. Yvette Issar, research assistant, both at the University of Geneva.

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