Collo is defined as a group of descendants or clans of black tribes who had joined up under the Nyikango’s leadership into what is now the Shilluk tribe.
Who came to Collo land through Kir-Paluko or Bahar El Ghazal river from Jur-Chol or Dimo tribe, Nyikango the founder of the Collo tribes was described to be a short man with a big head, which is elaborated to be in four apartments. He was found on his way by the Collo of papwojo of Tungo or Tonga. He has six fingers in each hand and also six toes in each foot.
THE INSTALLATION OF THE SHILLUK KING (RONY KI RADH COLLO)
BY AKWOCH DOK KWANYIYEK
TABLE OF CONTENTS
2. Piny Awany (The World Disappeared)
6. The followers of Nyikango
7. Original Collo
8. The Collo Kingdom
9. The Rony (Installation)
10. Tyeng Kwer Mo Rony (Clans Responsible for Installation)
11. The Preparation for Rony
12. The Starting of Rony Process
13. The Search for Nyikango’s Spirit
14. The Installation of Nyikango’s Spirit at Akurwa
15. The Stations where Nyikango’s army could stop on the way to FASHODA
16. Reth – Elect Leaves for Diballo
17. Activities at Diballo
18. The day of installation (Cang Rony)
19. The Battle at Arepajur
20. The Chor – Paabo
21. Reth is raised onto the throne
22. Reth is sent to Adull
23. The speech day (Cang loki)
24. The start of the speeches
25. Reth Exercises his full powers
27. Map of FASHODA
28. List of Shilluk Reths (Roor)
29. Special notes on election of Reth of the Shilluk
THE INSTALLATION OF RETH (KING) OF THE Collo PREFACE (INTRODUCTION):-
Fashoda association of the Collo student of Universities and higher institutions of learning in the Sudan invited me to give a lecture on the coronation or installation of Collo Reth (King) on 3rd August, 1992 in Youth Palace at Omdurman during their cultural week (23rd July – 3rd August, 1992).
A large gathering of the Shilluks turned up for this lecture and they were keen and interested to know about what takes place during the installation of Reth (Ronyi Rath Collo)
This booklet contains the text of these descrptions and explanations which the lecture was composed of
By: Akwoch Dok Kwanyiyek.
THE INSTALLATION OF RETH (KING) OF THE COLLO Piny Awany (The World Dissappeared)
When Reth (King) of the Shilluk tribe, who is regarded as the owner of the Shilluk workd of country, dies, he is believed to have disappeared together with that world. (Piny away).
Reth Akethi Log naam is also used, meaning that Reth have gone across the River Nile, i.e. he had madea final refuge across the river. This transitional period is called Wang yomo.
This belief originated from the time of Nyikango’s death, who is believed by the Shilluk people to have disappeared in a storn on the Eastern banks of the river Nile, opposite moroo of Mwomo area. Nyikango had decided to disappeare because he had failed to manage the Shilluk tribal affairs (Collo Adhalla Nyikango).
The Eastern side of the river nile is believed by the Collo (Shilluk) to be the world of evil events which is used for exiling princes (nyirath) of persons who are not loya to the Reth.
The Shilluk fought many wars againts other tribes there. Nyirath (Prince) Akaci wad Bwoch was killed by Beell (Anuaks) not that side, as an example. It is also regarded as a world for refuge by anyone whose life is threatened in the Shilluk county.
Reth-elect or provisional Reth (Reth mena ba Ororo), who succeeds the dead one, does not possess Nyikango’s spiritual powers, unless he is installed or coronated by scating him finally on Kwom (secret stook) of Kwanyiiyek after passing through procedures of other kwar or clans responsible for this occasion.
The process of giving spiritual powers of Nyikango (first leader of the Shilluk tribe) to a Reth – elect by special Shilluks (Tyeng Kwer) is called the Rony (installation of a Reth of the Shilluk).
The following is the description of what happens before, during and after the installation of the Shilluk Reth (Ronyi, Rath Collo)
The Installation of Reth of Shilluk (Ronyi Reth Mi Collo)
Reth (King) is considered by the Collow (Shilluk \) to be the spiritual leader of the Collo.
Collo is defined as a group of decendants or clans of black tribes who had joined up under the Nyikango’s leadership into what is now the Shilluk tribe.
Who came to Collo land through Kir-Paluko or Bahar El Ghazal river from Jur-Chol or Dimo tribe, was described to be a short man with a big head, which is elaborated to be in four apartments. He was found on his way by the Collo of papwojo of Tungo or Tonga. He has six fingers in each hand and also six toes in each foot.
The Followers of Nyikango:
This great man came to the present Collo land with followers such as:
1. Ju Wad Okwa step-brother of Nyikango
2. Otono Wad Okwa – of kwa-okollo of Willinyang.
3. Mill (ojullo) was okwa of kwa-ojullo.
4. Anongo was Nyikango.
5. Dak wad Nyikango
6. Ogyelo wad Nyikango of Mwomo.
7. Okell of Kwa – kell
8. Okumo was jwok who are now Kwa-gweno of didigo – Panyidway.
9. Kwa- ogawi-lawi of Pathworo – Panyidway (they are now called Kwa-jango).
10. Oboko – who sacrificed for clearing the reed which blocked their way when they were coming into Collo land through Kir-paluko.
THE ORIGINAL COLLO:-
They found some original Collo such as Kwa-Nyikango, Kwa-Oman etc, and managed to either force some individual members of other tribes such as the Funj, Dinka, Nuer, Nuba etc to join him into what is at present the Shilluk tribe.
THE COLLO KINGDOM:-
Nyikango who is a founder of the Collo Kingdom was considered by the Collo as a man who had special gifts and wisdom from God as witnessed in his special physical appearance. He managed to form this kingdom by confirming the special practices or roles to the individual members of those tribes who had joined him. These assignments or, practices continued to be practiced after the disapperance of Nyikango and are renewed when the Shilluk have to install a new reth.
THE RONY (INSTALLATION):-
This process of renewal of Nyikango’s acceptance of the Reth-elect is carried out by the clans of the individual members of the black tribes who had joined up to form the Collo Kingdom as it was started by Ocollo wad Dak. This is mainly done by the Kwar or clans of those who were confirm by Nyikango. The following clans or kwar plan major roles in the installation of the Shilluk Reth.
Tyeng Kwer Mo Rony (Clans Responsible for Installation):
- Kwa-Nyikango of Golbanyo, Mooro etc
- Kwa-Nyiyek of Kwom-Obuyo
- Kwa-Nyikwom of Akura
- Kwa-Mal of Makal
- Kwa-Kell of Kwom, Nyingaro and wuobo.
- Kwa-Nyimongo of Padhyang.
- Kwa-Gyel of Nyigir
- Nyiroro of Kodhok, lul etc
- Kwa-Wang of Dethwork or Acago
- Kwa-Nyicu of Golbanyo.
- Kwa-Owango of Lul
- Kwa-Ocwako of Nyilwak
- Kwa-Nyirow of Nyilwak
- Kwa-Owenyi of Kwom-Dibalo
- Kwa-Ojullo of Bol, Nyilwak
- Kwa-Dik-wor of Kwom-Akwacabay
- Kwa-Dikaki of Fashoda
- Kwa-kit of Kwom-Pamuko
- Kwa-Twot of Pabur
These Dwar of clans perform certain duties such as making new spears for the Reth-elect and shrines of Nyikango all of the Shilluk land, hunting water bucks or Gyek or birds such as ostrich (wudo) and red flamingo (owango).
THE PREPARATIONS FOR RONY:
The preparation usually starts during the harvest of new dura (sorghum) to enable people of Biw to collect special stalks of new dura (sorghum) for the mock fight or battle at Fashoda over the Nyikwer two days before the speech day or after two days after the enthronement of reth. These special stalks are collected by the decendants of the princess of biw whose representatives take all the gifts and cows which are brought from Lwak or southern Shilluk for reth during the installation or rony.
THE STARTING OF RONY PROCESS:
First: the real process starts by sending the Kwa-Dikwor of Akwabay of Kwom to the northern frontiers of Maanyo as far as Kosti to collect silver, spear handless etc. of making rings for reth. Rigns which are worn at the wists or leg (right) in case of Papiti’s family. Their return bringing such things remarks the possibility of starting the rony (installation).
Second: this is followed by sending of the Kwa-nyikwom of Akurwa (Anongo) with their special spear to go to Bol-Awaw (kwa—Nyidway) for cutting the palm leaves (Bach tuko) which would be used for kwanyik-wom for beating the people when they are keeping security for reth at Chor-Paabo.
Third: the third action which is mainly the role of the reth elect in looking for leoperds skin and elephant tasks. Leopards skin are worn by he reth after installation in addition to the oens which would be used for covering the secret stool (Kwom) of Kwanyiyek. This period also wilness the start of the blacksmith work of the Kwa-Nyikango of Gotbanyo who make new spears and rings for reth-elect when the Kwa-Dikwor return from maanyo, with such materials.
Fourth: the fourth action is giving permission or approval to the Kwa-Ocwako of Nyilwak to start the hunding of gyek (water buek) when blacksmith work of Kwanyikange is finished at Fadhosa.
Fifth: the fifth action is when nearly all the preparations are over, the Chollo or individuals including strangers from other tribes are asked to hunt for the Ostriches whose feathers (kona) are used for the making of the Nyikango’s symbols (kona). Nyikango and Dak symbols are made with black feathers while that of Anonogo is in brown feathers. Nyikango’s symbol is short with more feathers while that of Dak is tall and less feathers. The kona are used by the Kwanyikwom for blessing and empowering the new reth who cannot become a complete reth without possessing the Nyikango’s spititual strength or acceptance and powers.
THE SEARCH FOR NYIKANGO’S SPIRIT:-
Nyikango is believed to have gone across the river nile is made to come out of the river by the Kwa-nyikango of morro-mwomo. A man (nyikwer) is is well dressed with beads and special dress is taken into the river where Nyikango’s spirit appears in form of white thing (light) like silver after he was search for by the people of Akurwa, morro and Oriang.
Kwanyikwom of Akura go to the people of Oriang and all go Lo Morro and they proceed northwards as far as Jamel or Akoko where they search for Nyikango. Nyikango’s spirit appears in any of these villages at night in form of white thing (light) like siliver which gives light at night. In the following morning Nyikwer (man) is taken to the river with special drums being beaten until Nyikango re-appears in the same form in the middle of the river Nile. Nyikwer is taken into a conoe to the middle of the river where Nyikango’s spirit appeared to offer certain gifts to him, to let him accept to come out of the river with them. It is here that is believed that when that man failed to appear after diving into the river and only blood appears on the surface of the water, it shows that Nyikango did not accept the offer and corrections are made before another man is made to do the same. When a man (Nyikwer) brings along with him something in the river, it is belived that Nyikango was found and had accepted to come from the confirmantion of the reth-elect. Nyikango is therefore taken into a canoe up to Akurwa and Dak follow the main road to Akurwa after he had participated with the people in the search for Nyikango’s spirit. Anongo also appear two days later. Anongo is the son of Nyikango whose duty is to get Ongero from Bol-Awar of Dhothim.
THE INSTALLATION OF NYIKANGO AT AKURWA
Nyikango, Dak and Anongo are there after installed in Akurwa (Rony ki Kona) with ostrich feathers.
After installation of Nyikango, Dak and Anongo at Akurwa, Kwanyikwom or Benyikwom or Army of Nyikango are asked by the reth elect to march towards Fashoda for the rony or installation. This army is briebed by Reth with cows which can reach to over two hundred or otherwise they would not lighten the security for the reth at Arepa-Jur or delay the march to Fashoda. This march should take seven days if all the needs of Kwaonyikwom are provided.
SPECIAL PEOPLE (TYENG ACAANG) LEAVE FOR NUBA MOUNTAINS:
Meanwhile the people of Akurwa are busy with the installation of Nyikango’s spirit at Akurwa, special group of people are sent to the Nuba Mountains to collect spear handless and special sword for kwa-Nyien. This is done by the people of Padhyang of Gaar.
The stations where Nyikang’s army could stop:-
The following are the stations where Nyikango and Dak should spent the night on the way to Fashoda:
1) Adodo – noon
2) Delal dwong
3) Okwath – yo-thuro
4) Panyikango – otiego
5) Otiego – ogon
6) Otub – abyenyayo
7) Dethwork – dwong
8) Delal – golo
9) Debwor – kodhok
10) Pagach – padhyang
11) Adado – padhami – nyigir
Nyikango’s army passed any of these villages without spending the night there.
RETH ELECT LEAVES FOR DIBALLO
When Nyikango’s army arrived at Adado-Padhami of Nyigir’ reth leaves for Bankw-ago where he spend a night and leaves for Dibalo at dawn, reaching Dibalo in the early morning at about seven o’clock. People of Dibalo pretend to prevent reth from entry into Dibalo and later they evacuate the village and reth enters. In Dibalo new fire is made (pic ke mach by the kwa Nyutho).
ACTIVITIES AT DIBALLO:
In Diballo, the reth – elect waits for the completion of certain practices such as the ordering of the Nyikango of Ocoro to go to Fashoda. It is believed that Nyikango of Ocoro determine the years which the reth – elect would take ruling the Shilluk. This Nyikango is brought in form of special beads. In Diballo all the Shilluk chiefs are supposed to be present to determine the completion of the requirements for the installation of the reth.
On the third day at Diballo in the evening, reth is dressed with Ostrich-egg-beads (rek) and the chiefs confirm his special ceremony in fron of his residence at Diballo at about four p.m. In this ceremony all the chiefs agree to confrim him as the would-be reth of the Shilluk or the father of the Shilluk land by SAYING WOOH! WOOH, WOOH!!!! (four times). A bull is killed by the Nyiroro of Abuki-bal after this word.
THE DAY OF INSTALLATION (CANG BONY)
On the fourth day, at about 12.00 noon, the reth’s army leave Diballo in a special march which is done after exchanging special messages which are carried out by the Kwabwol “message carriers” until both Nyikango and the reth’s army meet after reth crosses the Dhok-Arepajur (Khoa Arepajur).
At Dhok Arepajur, reth step over a bull which is light down to meet the Nyikango’s army at the Gar (nothernern) side of Arepanjur.
Here Kwar-mal of Makal beat their whips (Ongoro) and Kwanyidhyang of Fashoda raise the hen. This is followed by a mock battle with stalks of new dura.
It is worth-mentioning here, that reth-elect might get eliminated or killed and new prince is installed instead of reth-elect, if security is not tightened by the Kwanyikwom of Akurwa. This happens, when reth-elect mismanages the Collo affairs during his provisional period (reth ba Garooro). If this incidence happens, the Shilluk believe Nyikango had rejected the reth-elect.
THE BATTLE AT AREPAJUR:
During the battle, reth is taken over by the spirit of Nyikango as Nyikango’s symbol or fringe is placed over or on his shoulders. Kwanyikwom here control the security and disperse people except Kwa-kell and Nyiroro or Kwa-Ojullo or other Kwar or clan’s members who should participate with Kwanyikwom in Chor-paabo’s ceremony. The Amalgamabed army march slowly through chor-paabo (narrow road specially cleared leading to Gal Nyikango of Fashoda where the throne (kwom) is placed by Kwanyiyek in front of Nyikango’s shrine). Kwanyikwom here lightened the security by beating any unwailed stranger to come nearner to the amalgamated army, with the whip (ongero). It is believed that is you happened to be beaten by the Kwanyikwom’s army, you should surrender to them by giving a sheep or goad, otherwise, the wounds would not heal.
THE CHOR – PAABO:-
At Chor-paabo (chor-paabo), (Nyadhyango ango nyapepkako (cow) of Kwa-ojullo which was dragged by the ??? from lik of Kwom through Diballo to chor-paabo is suffocated to death by the women and its meat is handed over to Kwa-kel to be eaten at Lik of Kwom.
RETH IS RAISED ONTO THE THRONE
After the march of chor-paabo, reth is raised onto the throne (kwom Jago) by the Nyirooro, where, Kwanyiyek are found keeping the throne (kwom) fenced up with domerria clothes and their chief holding the throne. Here reth is aksed to nominate his deputy who should hold the kwom with the chief of Kwanyiyek. Reth is here seen to be shivering as Nyikango’s spirits overtakes him on the throne of Kwom.
RETH IS SENT TO ADULL:
After having seen seated on the throne or kwom jagi, which confirms the completion of RONY or installation process. Reth is sent into slavery huts of (adull) to labour there by collecting the cow-dungs and cleaning the place of the cows of Bwori-mach (public treasury cow) which are kept there temporarly for that occasion. Reth had to spend four nights at the adull or temporary huts which are made of grass all over.
On his second day at Fashoda after the installation, another mock battle takes place over the Nyikwer (small young virgin girl) which the reth’s side (Gol Dhyang) takes over the Nyikwer from the Nyikang’s side (Gol Nyikango) and the Nyikwer is taken to Athurawic (headquarters of Fashoda).
In the early morning of the speech day i.e. the forth day of reth stay at Adull, Kwanyimongo play with their shield around Fashoda, be wishing the new reth a good fortune of having many cows which should pour to Fashoda during his rule.
THE SPEECH DAY (CANG LOKI)
At about 8.00 am. In the morning reth appears to his audience. The chiegs and ordinary Collo to deliver his policy statements to the Shilluk in front of Athurawic chiefs sit on the ground while reth is reated on the throne (kwom) with an umbrella of Red Flamingo’s feathers (ober Owango) held over his head by the Kwa-Owango of Lul-Agwoch.
THE START OF SPEECHES
The opering of the speeches is started by the chiefs (head chief) of extreme North and South i.e. Head chief of Mweomo and Tungo or Tonga respectively. Chief of Mwomo stands up and equires about the presence of the head of Chief of Tonga. Head of Chief of Tonga replies by standing up and chief of Mwomo there-after starts by spearing his spear into the round in front of himself. Head chief of Tonga after replying sits down waiting for his turn which should come as the last chief’s speech before reth starts his policy statements. It is worth –mentioning here, that the chief of Paju does not spear his spear into the ground in front of himself, but places it on the gound, before delivering his speeach.
A drum is beaten by the Kwa-wang of Dethwork for a good speech and does not beat it for a bad one.
Drum beating means that the speech contains useful advice to the reth and this is followed by shield play by the Kwa-Nyicu of Golbanyo who goes around some-one who gave a good speech, playing the shield and Kwawang follow along beating his drum.
After that, chief of Tonga delivered his speech, reth takes over the last chance by standing up and starting his speech which is also followed by drum beating when accepted policies are announced. This is concluded by Reth, by blessing a white bull, which is ??? in front of the Athurwic and there-after that bull is killed, remarking the end of the rony or installation of Reth as a full Reth of the Shilluk with all the Nyakango’s spiritual powers.
RETH EXERCISES HIS FULL POWERS:
Reth thereafter resumes hisnormal duties of looking after the welfare of the Shilluk people and seeing cases. He is seen well dressed with Gyel and silver-waist-rings (Atek) at both waists which were dressed to him by the Kwanyikango of Golbange (blacksmiths) in Athurwic before he apprears in public in front of the Athurci to deliver his policy statement.
Meanwhile, the Kwanyikwom are waiting for their cattle before return to Akurwa with the fringes of Nyikango and Dak, all the residence and people who are living in Fashoda are blessed by making the inhabitants of each residence at Fashoda appear before the Kwanyikwom with the fringes of Nyikango and Dak to be blessed after they give some offerings in form of money to Kwanyikwom.
The Kwanyikwom have to stay at Fashoda for at least seven days and had to spend all nights playing (Thom). The people of the nearby villages around Fashoda also come to play and sometimes Reth joins them with his wives.
Reth has to play down the Nyikwer thereafter the rony which are paid thus:-
1) ten cows
2) twenty sheep and goeats
3) Ten spears etc.
Although I consider this work as an attempt to frame the unrecorded process of installation of Shilluk Reth, it is important to note here that any Reth designate who fails to get installed in the manner described above shall face the following challenges;
- he will be regarded as a aprince (nyireth) who does not posses the Nyikango’s spiritual leadership for the Shilluk people.
- he will face endless opposition from the princes who might have competed with him at the time of election or selection.
- his sons shall not be entittled for the rethship post, if he dies without being installed.
- he will not have a full control over the Shilluk affairs.
- he will not enjoy full respect as a Nyikango’s representative.
The following list of Reths were not installed and had faced severe consequences which led to their assassination, or exile and exclusion of their saons from competition of Rethship.
1. Muko wad Nyadway
2. Waak wad Nyadway
3. Dyelguth wad Nyadway
4. Aney wad Yor (Nyakwaci)
5. Awin wad Yor (Nyakwaci)
6. Ajang wad Nyidhok
7. Kuckon wad Kwathker
8. Dhanho Akol wad Kwathker.
The above mentioned consequences makes a Reth elect to see that he is installed as soon as possible after the funeral rites of a late Reth. He should see that he respects the clans ofthose who are responsible for this occasion in particular, and the Shilluk people in general. He is also expected to bribe the princes who competed with him for the Rethship post with cows, sheeps, goats etc. he is expected at the time to avoid any confrontation or disputes with any individual, group, or community. Peoples confidence in him during the provisional period leads to a successful installation.
APPENDIX II LIST OF THE SHILLUK RETHS (KINGS)
|No.||Name||Period of Reign||No. of years||Name of Villave|
|1.||Nyikango Wad Okwa||1545||1575||30||Nyilwal – Panyikango|
|2.||Caalo Wad Nikango||1575||1590||15||Denyo – Tungo|
|3.||Dak Wad Nyikango||1590||1605||15||Paalo – Panyidway|
|4.||Nyidoro Wad Nyikango||1605||1615||10||Nyilyec – Gaar|
|5.||Ocollo Wad Dak||1615||1635||20||Detang – Obwa|
|6.||Diwaad Wad Ocollo||1635||1650||15||Obudhyang – Makal|
|7.||Bwoch Wad Diwaad||1650||1660||10||Paroro – Abyenayo|
|8.||Abudhok (Queen) Nyabwoch||1660||1670||10||Thworo – Dhothim|
|9.||Dhokoth Wad Bwoch||1670||1690||20||Thwonh Kong – Awajwok|
|10.||Tugo Wad Dhokoth||1690||1710||20||Nyimongo – Padhiang|
|11.||Okon Wad Tugo||1710||1715||5||Palabo – Pabur|
|12.||Nyadway Wad Tugo||1710||1745||30||Dibwor – Kodhok|
|13.||Muko Wad Nyadway||1745||1750||5||Pabo – Nyigir|
|14.||Waak Wad Nyadway||1750||1760||10||Burkyenyi – Obwa|
|15.||Dyetguth Wad Nyadway||1760||1770||10||Panyatho – Fashoda|
|16.||Kudit Wad Okon||1770||1780||10||Palabo – Lul|
|17.||Yor (Nyakwaci) Wad Kudit||1780||1820||40||Agwoch – Lul|
|18.||Aney Wad Yor Nyakwaci||1820||1825||5||Nyiwudo – Gar|
|19.||Akwot Wad Yor Nyakwaci||1825||1835||10||Diballo – Ogot|
|20.||Awan Wad Yor Nyakwaci||1835||1840||5||Opat – Nyigir|
|21.||Akoch Wad Akwot||1840||1845||5||Anyiago – Agot|
|22.||Nyidhok Wad Yor Nyakwaci||1845||1863||18||Dur – Dhothim|
|23.||Keathker Wad Akwot||1863||1869||6||Opathiwan – Ogot|
|24.||Ajang Wad Nyidhok||1869||1875||6||Radilep – Fashoda|
|25.||Kuckon Wad Kwathker||1875||1882||7||Apodho – Ogot|
|26.||Yor (Omer ) Wad Akoch||1882||1892||10||Bapi – Kodhok|
|27.||Kur (1) Wad Nyidhok||1892||1903||11||Pareth – Golo|
|28.||Akol Wad Kwathker||Pretender during reign of Kur (1)|
|29.||Padiet Wad Kwathker||1903||1917||14||Tumier – Waw|
|30.||Papiti (Gwang) Wad Yor||1917||1944||27||Abwoga tho Golbanyo|
|31.||Aney Wad Kur Nyidhok||1944||1945||1||Ganawat – Golbanyo|
|32.||John Dak Wad Padiet
||1945||1951||6||Kujo – Panyidway|
|33.||Kur (II) Wad Papiti||1951||1974||23||Ywodo – Kodhok|
|34.||Ayaang Wad Aney Kur||1974||1992||18||Owiykyel – Fashoda|
|35.||Kwongo Wad Dak||1992|
Akwoch Dok KwanyiyekSt. Vincent De Paul SocietyCholdren of the Nile Project,Khartoum – Sudan.
Newer news items:
Older news items:
Popular news items:
- Collo Global Action (CGA) Protests Human Rights Violations in Upper Nile state, South Sudan - 29/03/2011 - Read 38210 times
- Should dowry be abolished in Collo community? - 13/11/2008 - Read 17261 times
- Chollo Petition to the United Nation Secretary General - 26/07/2010 - Read 7327 times
- الشلك أمة .... ولها حضارة ترقت في مدارج الحضارة الإنسانية - 23/01/2007 - Read 5786 times
- A Short History of the Northern Luo: The Collo People - 10/10/2010 - Read 5539 times