South SudanFederalism Is a political concept in which a group of members are bound together by covenant with a governing representative head? The term '' federalism'' is also used to describe a system of government in which sovereignty is constitutionally divided between a central governing authority and constituent political units such as states or provinces. Federalism is a system based upon democratic rules and institutions in which the power to govern is shared between national and provincial/ state governments, creating what often is called federation.

During Nazism 1933-1945, Adolf Hitler viewed federalism as an obstacle to his goals, and claimed that ''national socialism must claim the right to impose its principles on the whole German nation without regard to what were hitherto the confines of federal states. Accordingly, the idea of a strong, centralized government has negative associations in German politics, although many social democrats and liberals favoured centralization in principle.

Analytical those who opposed to federalism in South Sudan have the same tendency fear of Adolf Hitler, they want to control national affairs and manipulated the masses. Contrary those who favoured federalism want to liberate themselves from dominion yoke of small clique, who wished to continue in their exploitation, discrimination, harassment and embezzlement of public resources without question. Other group just wants federalism for political purpose to weaken the central government to devolve power to the state, as what happened during French Revolution 1793.

Those who rejected the federalism in South Sudan are like Chinese nationalists, who are suspicious of decentralization, because they thought it could be a form of secessionism and a backdoor of national disunity, even though they know that this largest unitary state in the world is too far unwieldy to effectively and equitably mange the country's affairs. Oppositions to federalism know very well that central government in the South Sudan had failed miserly but they still want to push it on to the people for unsounded ambition.

In Britain, an Imperial Federation was seen as a method of solving the Home Rule problem in Ireland, federalism has long been proposed as a solution to the ''Irish Problem''. South Sudanese should know that other nations had proposed federalism as kind of solution to their chronic problems but why are we rejecting it now, if no hidden agenda?

In some Federation, each State has a ''president'' of its own that controlled almost every issue, even the creation of the ''State Armies,'' while the Federal Army was required to obtain presidential permission to enter any given state. This does not means that the Federal Government in the capacity of the President of the Republic had no vast powers to intervene in the States and Municipalities if need be.
Federalism is political government system in which the grassroots political units had been granted the concept of "self-management" or "self-government", which is a form of municipal organization in which people take back control of their living places from the bureaucratic state and the capitalist class whose interests it serves.

Federalism gives room to the creation of a network of participatory communities base on self-governing through direct, face-to face democracy in grassroots and community assemblies for discussion, debate, and decision making.

Federalism provides to the community assemblies powers to elect/ mandated and recallable delegates to the larger-scale units of self-government in order to address issues affecting larger areas, such as urban districts, the city or town as a whole, the county, the bio-region, and ultimately the entire planet. Thus the assemblies will confederate at several levels in order to develop and co-ordinate common policies to deal with common problems.
In a centralized system, the power rests at the top and the role of those below is simply to obey, while in a federal system, power is not delegated into the hands of a few such ''federal system'' or ''centralized system'' but in grassroots masses.. Decisions in a federal system are made at the base of the organization and flow upwards so ensuring that power remains decentralized in the hands of all. That means working together to solve common problems and organize common efforts to reach common goals.

Federalism is a system of government in which the same territory is controlled by two levels of government. Generally, an overarching national government governs issues that affect the entire country, and smaller subdivisions govern issues of local concern. Both the national government and the smaller political subdivisions have the power to make laws and both have a certain level of autonomy from each other.

In this regard Federal Constitution must grant the federal government power over issues of national concern, while the state governments must have jurisdiction power over issues of domestic concern. In addition, the federal government can enact laws governing the entire country, its powers are enumerate, or limited specifically as it was allotted to it in the constitution. For example, levy taxes, mint money, declare war, establish post offices, and regulation of interstate commerce.

The federal constitution must grant states all powers which are not specifically granted to the federal government, or forbidden to them under the Constitution, they may have right to levy taxes to support themselves. The state government has power to manage matters of local concern, such as protective service, public schools, hospitals, and road maintenance and repair.

1 it may ensure equitable distribution of resources equally to every state at federal government.
2 It will encourage each state to become self-reliance, self- productive, self-governing and self propagating.
3 It will ensure quick delivering of services to grassroots community's in shorten period of time.
4 It will give grassroots community's sense of ownership of the government.
5 It could reduce tribal conflicts or help in address them as quickly as possible.
6 The federalism will bring government closer to the people and easy to identify the problems faced by people and to address them as soon as possible.
7 The public funds will be allocated to real need of people.
8 It will minimize corruption, nepotism, favoritism and segregation because the government belongs to grassroots and not to few elites.
9 It will build strong bond relationship in state among the communities that will ensure true peace, tranquility and love.
10 It will give grassroots communities sense of participatory in national affairs rather than being dormant and passive.
11 Accountability will be easy endorsed, laws, and regulations will be evicted thoroughly.
12 Legislative Assembly of the state will have full mandatory authority over governor to impeach him in case he or she went astray.
13 Provision of services, equal opportunity in employment base on qualifications, and fair treatment to all citizens

1 Opportunists within state will try to manipulate innocent grassroots people unknowingly.
2 Elites in state may proclaim self- determination in future so that to control resources within their state which was supposed to be share by entire nation.
3 Major tribes in certain states may take this opportunity to build their own kingdom, in order to dominate the affairs of state.
4 Previous bad experiences may deepen mistrust, hatred and disunity among citizens of one nation.
5 Tribal conflicts may continue and spirit of vengeance amount high.

For sure these are not all advantages and disadvantages which I have narrated; certainly I know that we differ in our perspectives and perceptions. Therefore, you may agree or disagree that which is normal.

Daniel Amum Odwel