According to the Bible, book of Genesis Chapter 10:6 Table of Nations, Egypt was the integral part of Sudan since it is part of Ham lands.Genesis 16:1-2 Hagar was Ishmael’s mother who was Egyptian maidservant of Sarah and Ishmael wife was from Egypt married for him by his mother from her country.

Word, “Ummou Douniyaeh” (mother of world) is a phrase use by Egyptians that Egypt is the mother of the world which means the Arab and Islamic worlds. Indeed, Arabs define themselves that they are the descendants of Ishmael whose mother and wife were Egyptians. So since Ishmael is the son of Hagar, then Hagar father should had been one of the Ham (Cush father) descendants. Consequently, Arabs were the brothers-in-law of Egyptians who were Ham’s grandchildren. So it tells here that other nation rather than current Arab inhabitants of Egypt had dwelled there some centuries ago. Besides that, the significant evidences of the pyramids of Egypt and of Meroe {Dongola) show us that, the same culturally ethnic people lived in both countries. We are powerful nation as our Ancestors, Genesis 10:8-9 “Cush was the father of Nimrod, who grew to be a mighty warrior on earth. He was a mighty hunter before the Lord; that is why it is said, “like Nimrod, a mighty, hunter before the Lord”.But how did ethnic and religious changes in the Cush lands had emerged?Muslim had conquered Egypt almost around six century (six hundred years A.D). Seven century later, Muslims had methodically begun eroding the Sudanese kingdoms. The first way Was launching war against the frontier kingdom of Makuria which is current called Dongola. But Makuria had not only strong in expelling the invaders, but it was also vigorous and aggressive against its northern invading forces of Egypt. For example, on 18 August 1272, the army of Makuria descended upon the Egyptian-controlled Red Sea port of Aydhab sacking the city, executing the governor, the chief judge and commercial supervisor and the Christian forces of Makuria marched back across the desert and attack Aswan.The second method Arabs had rationalized how powerful the black people are. Knowing that, the notion of invading Sudan by launching war was not in their favor, they had therefore turned to build commercial, religious and intermarrying relationships with the indigenous Sudanese, the ties which become the parasites for destroying the native kingdoms one after other.Arabs then had begun venturing or penetrating into Sudanese-Northern kingdom of Makuria as merchants, miners, pilgrims or nomads using sweet tongues with emotional  and spiritual powers.    Impacts of unlimited hospitality and generosity: King Dawud of Makuria (Dongola now) who stood against the invaders was emotionally persuaded and opened his arms to embrace the aliens. Misinterpretation of outcome of interpersonal contact and unlimited generosity and hospitality had made king to bring usurpers, puppets, and Muslims to his throne. The welcomed Arab guests had turned their backs against the king and gradually eroded the identity of Makuria kingdom. That was the turning point of demographic and ethnic and cultural changes on the one hand and on the other hand; it was the reception of the century grievances on Cush people which some of them were asserted by Ibn Fadl Allah (A.D. 1331-51) that, “In these days, no king is able to reign there (in Sudan) except as a dependent of the court of the Egyptian sultans. The kings of Makuria (Dongola) owe the affixed tributes to the rulers of Egypt; those tributes do not only consist of gold or silver, but of a certain number of slaves, male and female, of lances and of the savage animals of Nubia”. NB: Nubian people were still sending slaves yearly to Turkey that was the implementation of the Ibn Fadl Allah judgment and such grievances were avoided by dislocating some of typical Nubian people from Dongola to Nubian mountain in western Sudan.That was earthquake for the indigenous Sudanese. People of north, east and west have lost their ethnicity, culture, religion, language and their heritages and built a coalition known as Northern-Muslim Arab nation to continue expanding toward south as second target.  Who is Abdallah, called Jamma (the Gatherer)?Name Jamma means gatherer. Abdallah Jamma was one of the Arabs immigrants and who was able to collect the black native Sudanese as much as he could and used them in defeating the other outstanding Sudanese kingdoms. We all know that such policy of gathering blacks against their own people still exist in Sudan.On Red Sea was Hadariba state (Beja) and its Shaykh had incorporated the Arab immigrants Juhayna which means the comers into his force as warriors and the Awlad Kahil which means sons of maternal uncles to help in pushing southward. Arabs in North still calling native Sudanese “Awlad Kahil”.You cannot imagine one stranger man, white in his skin, can be able to downfall the entire kingdoms of Sudan with exception of Fashodo. Decline of Anj (Alodia Soba): Soba was the next target of Abdallah Jamma. So to knock down the Anj in order to pave his expansive way, he had therefore established his capital at Qarri on the east bank below the confluence between Halfayat al-Muluk and Shandi. Having consolidated his position on Nile next to Soba, Jamma had launched attack on Anj and after a protracted warfare; Jamma had won a war and made Soba integral part to his invaded northern territory.                                         Who is the Funj?According to Mr. James Bruce’s initial discovery and belief, “the Funj and the Shulluk were one and the same. In the year 1504, a black nation, hitherto unknown inhabiting the western banks of the Bahar el Abiad (White Nile), in about 13 latitude, made a descent, in a multitude of canoes or boats upon the Arab provinces of Abdallah Jamma territory and in a battle near Arbaji between Madini and Soba, they defeated Wed Ageeb (Abdallah ruler) and forced him to capitulation, by which the Arabs were to pay their conquerors”.James Bruce is right that Funj and Shulluk are the same and one if we could consider the following analyses.Original Land of Funj before constitution of Sinnar kingdomcation: The land from where Funj came from is the core homeland of Shulluk. Starting from Kosti down to Tonja, Shulluk inhabits the western river bank of White Nile alone. The word “unknown” mentioned could mean that the exact place where Funj came from is not identify which means no other place than Shulluk land.                         Funj remainders in original land:Historically, the entire community does not immigrate to a new land, but the brave men with some of their families could adventure and be follow by others later on.Examples European pioneers had immigrated to Canada, America, Australia and South Africa without their families for uncertainty of circumstances in new lands. But later on, they had urged their love ones to follow when they had safeguard the availability of peace and good life in the new the lands. The immigrants in new lands do build relationship with their original home, such as in case of the Sudanese Arabs and their ancestral Arabs, European countries and their new discovered lands (America, Canada, Australia and South Africa) which still have cultural, ethnic, language, political and economical ties which Funj does not has. This means Funj has no people left behind rather than Shulluk.                                            Dispute:Dispute is repeatedly states that Funj and Shulluk do come into disagreement or understanding in their life time. As we all know, one sons of Shulluk king are good enemies because they are the only ones to share royal power. Beside that, there are too much territorial disputes between the provincial princes on power. So Funj could have had claimed his independency from central government which is Fashado and that might be a reason of dispute and lack of understanding between Fashodo and Sinnar.                                      Military Cooperation:James Bruces mentioned that Funj and Shulluk usually used to put aside their disputes and join to face their common enemies. James had stated that Fashodo usually extends logistical assistances and army to subdue rebellions against Funj provincial governments in northern, eastern and western Sudan. If that had happened, it means logistic support of central government to maintain its domination through sub-kingdom of Sinnar.Some Shulluk Names in Sinnar: During seasonal harvesting, many Shulluk workers use to go to work in the projects in Sennar. Most of them use to stay in place called “Makurinyreth” which is a Shulluk word.Number of Funj people and their language: I had tried many time to find a Funj man or woman and to know what language of Funj is, but, till now, I did not found the language and a Funj person.Royal coronation and ritual: There are similarities in ritual and coronation applications between Sinnar and Fashodo.Culture: In page 62, it is mentioned that,” the establishment of more peaceful relationship between Funj and Shulluk resulted in some acculturation”.Conclusion: In conclusion, James Bruce is right that Shulluk and Funj are one and the same due to these analyses.What was a Funj preventive reaction to recapture Sudan from the invaders?It is stated in page 26, book of “kingdoms of the Sudan, O’Fahey and Spaulding that, “In the year 1504, a black nation, hitherto unknown inhabiting the western banks of the Bahar el Abiad (White Nile), in about 13 latitude, made a descent, in a multitude of canoes or boats upon the Arab provinces of Abdallah Jamma territory and in a battle near Arbaji between Madini and Soba, they defeated Wed Ageeb (Abdallah ruler) and forced him to capitulation, by which the Arabs were to pay their conquerors”.Such move as that was so imperative and well calculated by Fashodo to recapture the whole Sudan from the invaders, Arabs. It was such initiative step of Fashodo that brought the erection period of Sinna kingdom and the first and the last in its nature to reunite the whole riverian northern, western and eastern Sudan since Arab had conquered those parts making Sudan as single state. Let just mention one of Funj victories against the invaders.Turks in 1576 had appointed an officer to annex Funj lands onto Ottoman Empire. Expeditionary forces with many boats well equipped with sophisticated weapons were ordered and marched from Egypt to re-capture the Sudanese lands. But Funj army had met them at Hannik near Arqu Island, where both forces had engaged. Despite of many sophisticated weapons Turkish forces had used, almost all Turkish forces were killed by Funj army with only one boat left and returned to Egypt. Among the killed Turkish soldiers was holy man whose tomb was later constructed on the site of the battlefield and it remained the border between Egypt and Sinnar until 1821.Diplomacy used to downfall the Funj kingdomThe Funj kingdom of Sinnar had shown its strength to its enemies and completely brought the entire northern, eastern and western Sudan under its domination. But Arabs and their allied Turkish had turned to use diplomacy which had shaped the next two centuries of the history of Sinnar. The intermediary who played great role of bringing reconciliation between the Funj and defeated Arabs and Turks was Faqih Idris Wad al-Arbab. Faqih Idris was well qualified for mediation as well as holy Muslim man using spiritual terms so persuasive. Diplomatic mechanisms involved many ways such as causing division among the Funj provincial princes, plot to urge others to rebel against the kingdom of Sinnar, and accepting institutionalization of Islamic institutions such as mosques and Islamic schools and Islamic and trading centers. Those institutions had introduced new incentives to the people of Sinnar kingdom. Therefore, many had followed the new ways of life and everyday, Faqihs became responsible for addressing people of the kingdom through religious gathering and those who wanted to do business were obligated to learn Arabic language for religious and commercial communications. Faqih strategy is still use by Sahdik al-Mahdi and Dr. Hassan al-Turabi and other Muslim leaders to encroach the majority of the Sudanese.  So listening to the strangers here was one method of taking people from kings and eventually many inhabitants have confessed their faith in Islam and Sinnar kingdom become obsolete culture. So, the only one remaining kingdom of the former Sudanese kingdoms was and is the shulluk kingdom which has been doing everything in its power to retain not only Shulluk identity, but the whole Sudan and African identity.Shulluk redemptive respond: Sinnar kingdom was an integral part of Fashodo kingdom. As James Bruce put it clear that Shulluk and Funj were one and the same.Therefore, the establishment of Sinnar kingdom happened as preventive reaction of Fashodo kingdom to expel Arabs from Sudan. But it turned out that changes in northern, eastern and western Sudan were not only matter of being defeat, but it was ethnic, cultural and religious transformations that native Sudanese had yielded to Arabization and Islamization which were personal belief. African religion and Christian were replaced by Islam which usually brings great demarcation between converted Muslims and own brothers who according to Muslim are infidels. The African languages being replaced with Arabic language that whoever still speaks traditional language is primitive and backward according to Islamized native Sudanese. Fashodo knew here that it is more difficult to win back the hearts of the converted Sudanese. So Fashodo had returned to protect the southern part of Sudan till this movement.Word “Odanhang”: Odanhang, to my understanding might be a line drew by Shulluk ancestral Nykang as line that separates south from North and that is the boundary which we are going to vote for in 2011. It is the red line which Arab could never across. Remember when the steamer carrying soldiers had confiscated the drummers of Fashodo and burn down the villages some years ago. According to the Shulluk song that, the Arab boat had drown being push by Nykhang’s holy hand, that we have met at Odanhang (demarcation line) that the steamer could never reach its destiny for it had burn down holy sites.My brothers and sisters, I’m trying to trace the history to remember the strength of our kingdom.Fashodo had recaptured and united the whole Sudan from North, West and East. It blocked any discovery expeditionary forces from Egypt to Lake Victoria making Isamil Pasha to complain to Ottoman viceroy in Egypt that there is uncontestable tribe along the white Nile that he have almost lost his troops. Fashsod had block the Arab culture and Islamic religion from being passed through Shulluk territories. Remember Zaber Al- Pasha, the great slave trader of Wau. Zaber Pasha, the only Arab man in Wau had recruited the huge soldiers and made himself king of Bhar El-Gazal. Turkish and British government did not manage to bring Wau under their administrations because Zaber was so powerful due to black power he had gathered. But through diplomacy, Zaber had accepted to make Wau part of government and he was appointed as governor of Wau.Caravan Route: Zaber and other slave traders used to bring captured slaves and goods from western Sudan and Wau through Shulluk territory to Kaminil near Madini where slaves, goods from West and blue Nile are brought together then to north and to slave center in Aswan-Egypt. Again, Shulluk had forced Zaber, the greater to create Caravan route from western Sudan to Egypt directly. You too know Islam has gone through airplane over shulluk land to Mangala, Wau and Renk, but not through our holy land.Believe it or not, this is the ancient and present Fashodo and it will remains bodyguard of the Sudan and African continent.Let speak out the truth for our children to know and be proud of their identity and power to avoid confusion that could make our children to obtain different attitude and be coward before others. Long live Fashod and long Shulluk people and all the Sudanese people. Reality will eventually judge us all.       

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  • Guest - Francis Nyawello Chan

    Hello Brother William and Family.

    Dear Wad Dak, I am happy to see you becoming very active on Pachodo forum. Please know that we do value your input here but please very carefull when you use some histiocal events, in spaiacl way when it comes to the boundary iusse. The word Odanhang does mean bourder between South and North NO it is queit so far from our bourder with North. For your information our really bourder is 12 miles South City of Kosti( Ogago) because this area you had mention is South of Wad Dakina which not too far from Kaod Thour Gawng. You know brother Wiliam, one of resons of death of uncle Pio Deng Yakuwn was bourder between South and North, so Please don't take us back.

    Peace,

    Francis Nyawello Chan

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  • Guest - William Okuch Dak

    Dear brother Francise. May peace and graces of Lord Jesus be upon you and your lovely family. I pray may next year be a year of friendly family reunifications after long separation result of insecurity. I missed you a lot brother Francise and I thank the builder of this Fashod web as assemblying site.
    Thank you very much for correction and I knew I might be wrong, meanwhile, I knew too someone will feed me with accurate information. We learn through mistake, I sincerely accepted.
    I wanted to call you for soem information before i have submit my brief note, but sorry about that.
    For death of Pio Deng, it is better to deny one's life for the truth. Whoever deny his/her life for righteousness is martyr and hero for generation to come become heroes left behind good history and awarness. Yes, if keeping history and identity rquires lives, no moral man could escape it.
    [edited]
    History of Sudan is buried for children to have new Arab identity. Remeber, Anaya-Anya One were black Sudanese who were supported by their own brother countries in Africa. During Adis Ababa agreement in 1972, Egypt had clamied to accept three hundred Southern students yearly to study in Egyptian universities and colleges rather than Ethiopian which has legal, religious and ethnic rights to do that. The reason are clear just to have cultural influence on graduate students.
    I appreciate your correction.
    But also let speak the truth before it is too late.
    William Okuch Dak

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  • Guest - Peter Aban

    Thank you brother Dak for digging out our buried histroy. Our history is orally tell not written in media empire.
    Many Sudanese now live abroad. It is time to search, write and publish hiden treasuary. That is another war against those who want expose wrong history so not to be afriad because we are telling right information. We can not be silence meanwhile, those who have no right are speaking loudly.

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  • Thank you so much Mr.Dak, for your good research, most of our current generation don't know that Shilluk and Fung are one nation.
    But yes they are one Even in sudanese history text books is mention and I have taken those text book in history 6th grade and in Sudan School Certificate,which says Funj originally are Shilluk,that's the way it appear in books,though to me it make no different whether it says Funj originally Shilluk or Shilluk originally Funj since we believe we are one people. And the remained unanswered question to me is how Shilluk and Funj can work toegther now a day in Sudan whether united or separated?

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