By Professor David de ChandThe SPLM/A will shoot its first bullet against the separatists from within…” (John Garang de Mabior, Radio, SPLM/A Speech, 1983). Succinctly, it’s shocking, mediocre spirit and pretty much disturbing indeed that a respectable leader of any people could be so foolish, diatribe and diabolical to divide his subjects on the basis of ethnicity or tribes.
The discovery of this plan through some of the former closer associates of the late Marxist-Leninist Garang is a victory for truthfulness and liberation of not only the Nuer nation but all nations of South Sudan, including the Dinka people. Now, that we have knowledge of this document, though not all of it, it is about time for each and everyone of southerner with a sense of national consciousness to make serious and critical reflection on this secret plan its implication for southern unity and to undertake serious responsibility and elf-reflection by asking whether the purpose of the right to bear arms was legit or our armed struggle was a design by submission or by omission to create another “internal colonialism” in the aftermath of clearing the former? It is our conscientious and modus of operandi that we relegated ourselves to follow this wicked design to charter the course of a would-be multicultural, multiethnic, multi-racial, diverse political culture, political socialization and pluralistic or multiparty democracy as well. The theme of Garang’s secret plan is to privileged and empowered every SPLM cadre with money and political power and what to do about the rapidly rising Nuer power, democratic ideals and its tenants. The preoccupation and thinking of every SPLM power elite is the how to make money and how to marginalize the Nuer nation and its people. They have surely earned some money through corrupt practices rather honest way. In short, it should be stated at the onset that it is too for the SPLM to conquer the Nuer in South Sudan. We urge and appeal to the readers of this piece to be gentile, vigilant and reasonable in digesting, chewing and swallowing the negative or naïveté ideas or concepts and expressions herein by the framers of this document. It should not divide us whatsoever but it should show us that in principle the evils that men do follow them. When leaders are at the helm of political lime lights and power they are corrupt and absolute power corrupts more. The only regrets that Sudanese and south Sudanese would mourn so much is that the absence of the author and the conceptualizer of the said secret plan in our midst to tell the Sudanese people as a whole his real vision and intentions. Perhaps, mother nature, predestined that such a revelation would be discovered posthumously or after his death. This is the difficulty to decipher the real intentions, politico-philosophical and politico-sociological analysis and exegesis. Moreover, history and his legacy would not absolve the SPLM leadership for what it preconceived as a “final solution” of one ethnicity or a nationality in South Sudan. Surely, the SPLM had committed genocide against the Nuer, other nationalities, including Dinka nationality from 1983-1991 and in the aftermath of the split thereafter. Thus, the Bor incident in the aftermath of the split was perpetuated by the SPLM Torit faction and was a response to previous actions of the SPLM in other non-Dinka-Bor areas. There was no military involved. It was undertaken by the civilian population. The Nasir faction military leaders were not involved in any way. Thus, the allegations that Dr. Riek Machar was the culprit are not true. The war was started by the late John Garang who had the wildest dream and wishful thinking of reuniting the South by means of an armed force and failed disastrously. We appeal for stronger Southern unity, no retributions, detribalization and no ethnic, racial and religious hatred. Let’s think above and beyond this work that was a step backward in our struggle and nation-building process. We could only dialogue for a solution otherwise we become part of the problem. We all could humbly make the best out of this worst scenario if we were to collectively unify our energies, resources and intellectual minds to re-energize our capabilities and resources, thinking and neo-thinking, epistemologically, ontologically, philosophically, scientifically and methodologically to construct and deconstruct our efforts to strife for the best that we can all be. We should have to bear in minds and souls that we all belong to Sudan and South in particular. We should regard ourselves as Sudanese of neither Arabs nor Africans in our frame of reference (Worldview). Any deployment of racial card by either Northerners or Southerners would resolve our problems but would create mortal enmity. It is the rational democratic transformation and rational ontological thinking we can overcome Sudan’s endemic problems.
THE ROOTS OF WAR
For more than five decades the people of South Sudan waged Africa’s longest armed struggle in the quest for social justice, equality, freedom, liberty and the right of self-determination to determine their political destiny, social, economic and cultural well-being as well as the right to development. We have achieved these objectives but we have been let down by the SPLM leadership in the South, unfortunately. While the objective was to liberate the South, it had taken another angle that no one could have anticipated. The Garang’s Secret Plan at Navivasha in 2005 had two prongs, namely, suppression and marginalization of the Nuer one of the strongest, potentially rich because of the oil, natural gas and agriculture as well as cattle. The Garang’s Secret Plan was (and still is) sponsored by foreign powers with specific agenda or interests to destabilize the peace and tranquility so as to deny the country its great prospectus to undertake socio-economic and human resources development. The objective of these foreign powers is to declare Sudan as a failed state similar to Somalia. It was further designed to takeover the reign of power from the ruling party led by President Field Marshal Hassan Omer Al-Bashir by any means necessary as the glorious fulfillment of the orchestrated American based policy of regime change in Sudan retrospect to 1996 followed by unnecessary and unworkable sanctions for more than a decade. These sanctions did not work for the last decade. Although the outgoing Bush’s administration is threatening to impose tougher sanctions on Sudan, they would be counterproductive. It would be in the best vital national security interest of the United States to undertake ‘constructive engagement’ with Sudanese government and leaders. For the time being, the USA does not have any leverage on Sudan. It could impose sanctions and embargoes, they would not work as time and space has proven in the last decade. The escalated Darfur crisis by the media and lobbyists is an internal matter that does not warrant any external intervention in the domestic affairs, sovereignty and the territorial integrity of Sudan. The alleged claims of genocide committed in Darfur could be not substantiated at all. Thus, the indictment of some Sudanese officials by the ICC is a mockery and lacks credibility. Foreign interference in Sudan’s domestic affairs would be a serious violation of sovereignty, territorial integrity and international law. It would be unfair if the United Nations (UN), the African Union (AU) and the League of Arab States (LAS) Charters should subscribe to the policy of external intervention in the domestic affairs of Sudan or any member states of the preceded organizations.
The Bush’s administration is apprehensive about the ruling party –the National Congress Party (NCP) -that the Bush’s administration has falsely alleged of having direct connections with the Islamic extremists and the hard core terrorists in the Middle East. The US foreign policy strategists who so much depended on the lobbyists’ reports could not substantiate such allegations in any court of law or international forum. The alleged Sudan’s terrorist connection by the US is controversial because there is no evidence yet to justify the allegation. The NCP is divided into two ideological camps, i.e., the NCP wings, which are the ruling party led by President Bahsir and the Popular Congress Party (PCP) led by Dr. Hassan El-Turabi that glossed over and retracted from its extremist political philosophy of establishing a theocratic state to creating a united, diverse and democratic Sudan. The NCP itself has its own internal cracks and fragmentations though invisible they are well known. There’s the X-camp within the NCP that seeks the regime change in which the X-factor and the SPLM based on the secret plan would be ready to grasp power from Al-Bashir’s by any means necessary. Perhaps, another problem now that faces the X-factor quests for grapping power are the concurrent internal changes within the SPLM that actually undermined and stripped off Kiir’s monolithic powers and delegated them to his deputy Dr. Machar and the Secretary-General Pagan Amoum. Most importantly, the southern masses are tied of being manipulated, deceived and maneuvered with so many lies and unfulfilled promises by the SPLM/A leadership for the past 23 years. Surely, the southern masses wanted democratic transformation within the SPLM, political stability, development, democracy, transparency and accountability and above all, significant South-South Dialogue for reconciliation, forgiveness and unity of purpose. In short, the SPLM leadership has failed to deliver the goods and services in the past three to four years of ruling in the South. The SPLM has delivered only tribalism, corruption, war, alienation, marginalization and land grapping in Equatoria. Most importantly, it had delivered only two things, vis-à-vis, alcoholism, exploitation of women for sex and Dr. Riek Machar the only workaholic in the GOSS.
The SPLM/A power elites are, of course, anti-South-South Dialogue because many of them would be weeded out of power because of war crimes, systematic human rights violations, murders, torture and crimes against humanity they have committed against the innocent people in the South during the war years. The International Criminal Court (ICC) should indict southerners who have been suspected of having committed war crimes and crimes against humanity in the South during the war years. They should not be protected. They should be indicted similar to those allegedly wanted in the Western Sudan’s Darfur region on war crimes and crimes against humanity by the ICC. For instance, Salva Kiir murdered more than 5,000 Murle people in Boma Plateau in southeastern Upper Nile with tanks, machine guns, mortars, rockets and hand grenades in 1988.When the SPLM/A captured Terakaker the centre of the Manderi tribesmen in 1985, the SPLA soldiers of Dinka Bor committed mass killings on the Manderi tribesmen because they have old and long enmity and historic feuds of cattle rustlings between the Dinka Bor and the Manderi people. This was how they resorted to form the Manderi’s militia led by Major-General Clement Wani, the Governor of Central Equatoria State, for their own protection from the SPLM/A raids. There are also deeply seated tribal tensions between the SPLM/A and the Shilluk, the Manderi, the Taposa, the Murle and the Nuer communities. SPLM/A kidnapped children from the bosoms of their moms by deceiving them their children would be educated in Ethiopia. Their ages were 5-8 and 8-12 years of age. They never sat down in any classrooms in Ethiopia, unfortunately. They were conscripted as child soldiers. Many were exported to Cuba under the leadership and guidance of Pagan Amoum to train as the Young Communist Youth League (YCYL) or the Red Army of the SPLM otherwise known as the Garang’s boys. These children are known today as the “Lost Boys of Sudan” in the United States of America that Kawaja falsely accused the GOS of being responsible for years. Moreover, the SPLM also abducted thousands of unaccompanied minors to be conscripted as child’s soldiers. They were held against their free will and consent and the SPLM/A had refused attempts of family reunifications. It is sad indeed to note that many of them were murdered in the aftermath of the split in Eastern Equatoria by the notorious Dinka-SPLM commanders that would eventually be charged of war crimes and crimes against humanity alive or posthumously.
In essence, these acts constituted systematic human rights violations and terrorism. The SPLM/A leadership could not deny that it had been guilty of wide scale acts of terrorism during its war with GOS. These included widespread murdered of South Sudanese men, women and children, including GOS prisoners of war (POWS) that is also a contravention of Article 1 of the Geneva Conventions that guaranteed POWs fair and humane treatment and the right of visitation by the International Red Cross (IRC). In fact, the SPLM/A shot down a civilian aircraft that was taking off from Malakal killing 60 people on 18 August 1983. The current SPLA Chief of Staff WiecYah Deng Ajak was responsible for committing this crime against humanity. A second civilian airliner was also shot down in May 1987, 13 people and crew were dead. In 1990, the SPLA conducted indiscriminate mortar and rocket attacks in Juba killing 40 civilians and wounding many others. In 1993 Amnesty International recorded SPLM/A forces lined up more than 32 innocent Nuer women from the village of Pagau 12 kilometers from Ayod and then each one of them was shot in the head. This crime against humanity and terrorism was committed by Cdr. Ping Deng Majok and Koul Manyang Juuk, the Governor of Jonglei State. In the same village another 18 men and children were shut in a hut and then set it on fire. When three or more of them attempted to escape they were shot to death and the rest burnt to death. In Pankor village northeast of Ayod, 36-40 women were burnt to death in a cattle byre (luak). These crimes and acts of terrorism were committed by the three notorious commanders Ping Deng Majok, Koul Mayang Juuk and George Ator who are also sons of the area minus Ping Deng Majok who hails from Abyei further north of South Sudan. These are facts documented and no propaganda tools of war. There are still more atrocities not mentioned in this piece of work. In short, the SPLM/A is a terrorist organization rather than a liberation movement. Authentic liberation movements do not kill those that they have professed to liberate from domination foreign or domestic. Therefore, the SPLM is not fit to govern the South because it is a sick movement led by sick people and sick movements and sick people could not possibly liberate healthy people. These thugs should realize that they can run but they cannot hide from the law. They would be indicted for the crimes they have committed in South Sudan sooner or later. The International Criminal Court (ICC) short also indicts these thugs, hooligans and hoodlums in South Sudan.
Most importantly, South-South Dialogue would call for the establishment of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) to bring face to face the victims and their abusers to confess the wrong doings, which they have done and ought not to have done against the innocent people that they professed to liberate. The TRC should be organized to heal the wounds similar to post-apartheid South Africa in 1994. The UN should set up an International Tribunal in South Sudan to indict, try and sentence anyone found to have committed war crimes and crimes against humanity during the war years. The Rwanda Genocide tribunal should set precedence. The US and Norway should not bloc this process because of their support of the SPLM/A for years. Sudan Peace Act (the Act) signed by President Bush of the United States into law in the White House in 2002 with emphasis on Article 11 of the said act should be reactivated. Without any reconciliation, unity of South Sudan would be impractical, if not impossible, to attain at present and in the foreseeable future. The political disarrayed lack of cohesion and disunity in the South has been created by the SPLM leadership from its inception up to the presence. Most of its leaders from the top to the bottom should be indicted by the International Criminal Court (ICC) for war crimes, crimes committed against humanity, torture, murders disappearances, atrocities and other heinous crime against humanity in South Sudan. It would be up to the peace sponsors (the US, the UK, Norway and Italy) to go one step backward rather than one step forward with the proposed South-South Dialogue or let’s all hell break loose. There is bitterness against the SPLM/A that is seen as “foreign proxy” and “surrogate” to destabilize Sudan and South Sudan in particular. It is the most hated organization in Sudan and South Sudan in particular because southerners have branded it as a terrorist organization rather than a liberation movement.
President Bashir as a moderate military politician knows what goes on within the NCP ruling party, its fragile and rocky partnership with the SPLM and the whole country but remains diligently vigilante. The cracks within the NCP became visible with the recent pre-emptive attacked on the City of Omdurman by the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) led by Khalil Ibrahim and the fifth column from within the government bureaucracy. The alleged X-factor within the NCP is collaborating with the SPLM with backing from Washington and is expected to affect the policy of regime change in Sudan. It works closely with SPLM as a partner in the Government of Nationality Unity (GONU) to achieve this end. Both the National Congress Party ( NCP) led by Field Marshal Hassan Omer Al-Bashir and the Popular Congress Party (PCP) led by Dr. Hassan Al-Turabi have a “New Deal” to maintain stability, the fragile CPA and unity of the country. They would do whatever it takes to preserve unity and not to allow Sudan to be declared as a “failed state” by external powers under the rubric or the umbrella of the US. The US through its lobbyists and operatives within Sudan have linked Darfur crisis with the South, the Ingseena (Southern Blue Nile) and the Eastern Sudan in order to create a “horse-shoe shape” that’s proposed to be an all black state or the so-called “New Sudan” for the marginalized “Africans” (Zurga) (blacks) to separate it from what is identified as “Arab” and “Muslim” north. This is a hogwash and pure racial card to divide and rule Sudanese folks for the benefit of the United States and its Western allies. The question that we would like to probe is what is the meaning of the “New Sudan”? The objective of the US administration is to oust the ruling National Congress Party (NCP) that it has alleged without any corroboration and substantiation had connections with the National Islamic Movement (NIM) created by its guru Dr. Hassan Al-Turabi. The objective of US foreign policy is to affect the established policy of regime change and to declare Sudan as a “failed state” similar to Somalia and Iraq that are now almost failed states. It is one of the three regimes left in the US foreign policy strategy to be changed, vis-à-vis, Syria, Iran and Sudan that the US has declared as “pariah states” and “rogue regimes” and targeted to be destroyed prior to the end of the Bush’s administration in early 2009.
Under the pretext of a “failed state,” the US and its allies could order the toothless UNAMID peacekeepers in Darfur to change its mission status from peacekeeping force of 7,000 to 26,000 men strong to Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter to become an occupation force rather than a peacekeeping force in Sudan. The US would further order more European Union (EU) Rapid Deployment Force (RDF), the newly created US African Command (US AFRI- COM) and NATO forces dominated by the US Army (USAR) to deploy more troops to Sudan at shortest notice. The success of any of these strategies would be a new beginning for re-colonization of Sudan and Sub-Saharan Africa. The occupation and re-colonization of Sudan would set a precedent for any countries in Afro-Asia such as Zimbabwe, Syria, Iran and Myanmar (Burma) would rank on the top list for invasion. Any success of this plan could have an adverse impact on the future of independent Afro-Asian nation-states. It is a well established fact that the recent Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) attacked on the City of Omdurman was a clear protracted strategy that the West is determined to support directly or indirectly to affect the policy of regime change with hooks and crooks in Sudan. Although the JEM action in the City of Omdurman was not a Western sponsored act, it success, of course, would have been welcomed and Khalil could have become a big hero in Washington, London and Paris.
Basically, it is presumed that Khalil Ibrahim’s action was sponsored by the extremist Islamists Wahabists within the NCP and PCP members in Sudan and in the Arab and Islamic countries in the Middle East. The African nation of Chad is being used as a conduit and could not possibly possess such sophisticated and lethal weaponry captured by Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF), police and the security services. They must have been imported from some place in the world and such a place according to many resources, have been doing the figure pointing to Nicholas Sarkozy’s France that acts a the new errant boy on the bloc for the US to topple the regime of President Hassan Omer Al-Bashir. France and the previous French governments had been closed allies and friends of Sudan. However, recently President Sarkozy of France has changed the rules of the game to a new dimension. Given the JEM foiled surprised attacked on Omdurman City; it would be impractical, if not possible, for JEM to make another attempt in the foreseeable future. Although many rumors from many sources suggesting that JEM could return and do it again, it remains unlikely that it could because of heavy loses that it had encountered in the aborted clandestine and well organized military operation. Furthermore, growing uprising in Eastern Chad against President Debi, would surely, slow down another round of an attempted invasion of Sudan by the JEM.
The Government of Sudan has remobilized the demobilized forces to encounter any further attacks from JEM. In fact, Sudan could easily succeed if it were to support the Chadian rebels to oust President Debi. It does have the military muscles to do it as it did previously in Chad and elsewhere in the Horn of Africa. France has given asylum to Abdulwahad Al-Nur of Sudan’s Liberation Army (SLA) and Israel has allowed SLA to open offices in Tel Aviv. This is a new development in Israeli intervention in Africa and Sudan in particular. The Save Darfur lobbyists have done remarkably well their homework on “genocide” that it alleges did happen in Darfur since the outbreak of war in 2003. This is a serious allegation the Sudanese Government has categorically denied as devilish and witch hunt strategy propaganda against Khartoum. David C. Rubstein, director of the Save Darfur said recently that he was disappointed that the Bush’s administration did not immediately impose tougher sanctions against Sudan or set a specific dateline for doing so. He (Rubstein) added that the Bush’s administration has failed, as the record for years so well-described by the President in his speech makes unarguable,” Rubstein said, “Any further delay in the imposition of tougher, coercive measures to give diplomacy any hope of success, and the people of Darfur any hope of a future have no justification.
The Israeli interest in Sudan is oil and water. It is preparing itself for the year 2025 water’s crunch and scarcity in the Middle East. River Jordan could not sustain both the Arab and Jewish populations, therefore, there is a great deal of a dare need for alternative sources of water in the years ahead. The Great Lakes Region and South Sudan are good sources for obtaining water through pipe lines to the Middle East. Egypt had already connected the Nile River through pipe lines across the Suez Canal to Sinai Desert. It dreams is to use the water as a collective bargaining tool just as OPEC and AOPEC used oil to change international cooperation and the world’s political economy. The US threatens of new and tougher sanctions against Sudan would not work. They have been in imposed for more than a decade and they have not had any impact on Sudan’s economy at all. It has been business as usual. Because Sudan is self-sufficient in food production and does not import any luxury goods, any imposition of sanctions by the outgoing or the lame-duck Bush’s administration would have any impact or deterrent on Sudan. Furthermore, any military intervention would be deadly and futile. Therefore, the best alternative option that the US has left now is “constructive engagement” with the government of Sudan. As a Sudanese-American and an expert on African affairs, including Sudan, the way out of this debacle would be for Washington and Khartoum to tell the media and the lobbyists to give constructive engagement through diplomacy a chance. The US needs Sudan more than Sudan’s needs the USA. As a result, there is a need for improving the US-Sudanese relations and removing all sanctions and embargoes completely. We could help Washington for a way out of this debacle. Specifically, as an academic expert with firsthand knowledge and a child of these two countries- the US and Sudan- I am determined to build the bridge between and the United States and Sudan. Darfur is an internal Sudanese problem that does not need external intervention. Sudan as a member state of the UN, LAS and the AU, its domestic policy agenda and way of life could only be altered or changed via political persuasion and diplomacy. Hence, the advocates for US military intervention in Darfur crisis would be committing a grave mistake for the present and future generations of the Western world. Another military intervention in Sudan similar to Iraq and Afghanistan could not be tolerated by many Afro-Asian countries and the League of Arab States of which Sudan is a full member, including Arab Africa. It would appear that Washington is waging war against Islam instead of terrorism. This is the most critical point to be studied by America’s leaders and decision-makers. We should resolve the Darfur crisis via constructive engagement and the culture of peace rather than the culture of violence. Any military intervention by the UN, the US and the EU in Sudan would be off tangent of diplomacy.
THE NORTH- SOUTH DIVIDE
The North-South divide was perpetrated by lack or the absence thereof of democratization, good governance, and the rule of law, power and resources sharing that culminated to war, destruction and death. The root causes of the North-South divide was the acute lack of power sharing. Today for the first in the contemporary history of Sudan southerners control 40% power in the central government and over 95% of power is controlled by southerners themselves in the South without any interference from the centre. In fact, President Omer Hassan Al-Bashir leadership has narrowed the gap between the North and South. Despite the war throughout the critical years of the East-West ideological confrontation up to the popular overthrow of President Gaffer Mohammed El-Nimeiri in 1985 the US government remained Sudan’s staunchest political and military ally in the region. The alliance was rooted and pre-empted in part by a shared cold war animosity toward the governments of Libya and Ethiopia. As a result, Sudan was the third largest recipient of US foreign aid programs in the world after the governments of Israel and Egypt during much of this period. Most of the aid was procured in the form of advance military training, weaponry, and ammunition. Although the acquisition of such aid programs were intended as deterrent against Libya and Ethiopia, the bulk of these military supplies were subsequently rerouted and unleashed against the civilian populations in the South. Today, the Bush’s administration is at odds with a former old ally because of its alleged connections with the Islamic radical terrorists without any clear and coherent substantiation. It is, however, determined to oust President Bashir through its old and archaic policy of regime change orchestrated by Washington’s lobbyists and Sudan Study Group (SSG) retrospect to the President Clinton’s era in the White House.
From 1980-82, South Sudan was rocked by four significant events that acted as the catalysts of the war that was lulled by the fragile Navivasha bilateral peace agreement otherwise technically known as the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) that was signed by the government of Sudan and the Sudan’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) on 9th January 2005. First, the Nimeiri regime sought to modify the inherited administrative political boundary between the north and south so as to extend northern control over mineral-rich regions of Western Upper Nile and Bhar-el-Ghazel Provinces in the South. Second, GOS security forces in Khartoum launched a campaign to arrest and evict thousands of South Sudanese labor migrants from the nation’s capital on the grounds that they have failed to obtain the identification cards and permits to work. Third, the Nimeiri regime decided unilaterally to change the construction site of a US Chevron-proposed oil refinery from the southern town of Bentiu that is the source of oil to Kosti a distance of more 600 miles northward from the source of the black gold. Fourth, and most controversial of all, the junta unilaterally proposed to re-divide the south into three autonomous regions. Lastly, but not least, it further abrogated the Addis-Ababa Accord of 1972 that lulled the 17-year old civil war (1955-1972).
In essence, all of these highly government provocative moves inflamed the long-outstanding political tensions between the North, identifying itself as “Arab” and Muslim and South, identifying itself as “black and African.” Although the North and South have numerous ethnically diverse and linguistic groups that crosscut these regional identifications and metamorphosis, the fact remains, that ever since independence from the UK in 1956, “southerners” as a group had been marginalized by military junta and partially elected democratic governments predominated by “Arab” and “Muslim” traditional sectarian political parties, i.e., the Umma and DUP parties who formed an opposition with other parties, including Sudan’s Communist Party (SCP) known as the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) including the Marxist-Leninist SPLM/A. The outcome of the Northern sectarian political parties policy of marginalization was the root causes of direct rebellion and resistance –most notably in the predominately Nuer region of the oil rich in the Grater Upper Nile region. In a nutshell, the inconspicuous decisions of the military junta and the abrogation of the Addis-Ababa Accord of 1972 could be summed up as the root causes of the renewal of the war in 1983. Realistically, the war was on for a decade before it was hijacked by the late John Garang from its founding fathers abated by the then Marxist-Leninist Ethiopia regime (1974-1991). In other words, John Garang got to the helm of power via a military coup d’etat, which he had admitted before the IGAD and the International Peace Sponsors and the GOS delegation in Kenya.
Southern marginalization by the north was expected to be resolved by the Khartoum Peace Agreement of 1997, which is the true carbon copy of the so-called Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) of 2005 that is not transparent, comprehensive and inclusive. It is a “blockage” created by the SPLM/NCP with emphasis on the ethos of Garang Secret Plan that no one knows fully except the late John Garang, his protégés, best friends, patrons and political lackeys whether by omission or submission. The late John Garang although known to have committed war crimes and crimes against humanity had been backed by the United States of America, the UK, Norway and Italy as a bulwark to oust President Bashir. In actual fact, the peace was assumed to be the easiest way to topple Bashir’s government. Despite his well documented human rights violations and radical Marxist-Leninist frame of reference (worldview) or view points, he’s much favored by the Washington more than President Bashir. Does the West really know who John Garang really was? Of course, the guy was talented, but very sophisticated fellow to deal with. Western experts, psychoanalysts, political scientists, sociologists, social anthropologists, historians and psychologists are needed to do their homework on the late John Garang de Mabior such that they could know and understand the delicate and complex animal that they dealt with in the first place. The CPA has so many bolts and nuts to crack because it has not brought peace, social equality and social justice for all Sudanese. For the South, it is a nightmare. It has become a breeding ground for rampant corruption, lack of institutionalization of democracy, good governance, and the rule of law, human rights protection, transparency and accountability. Furthermore, it has not significantly harmonized or improved the harmonious and disharmonious and/or loves and hates in the North-South relations, lack of confidence-building measures and trust in building the pillars of a united, diverse and democratic Sudan. The war still continues and peace is too far away to grasp by many Sudanese. Both the NCP/SPLM partners in governing of the country should do more to preserve and keep the peace by all means necessary.
THE ABYEI PROTOCOL AND THE ROADMAP
Probably, the biggest threat that could jeopardize the CPA and the exercise of the right of self-determination in 2011 would be the ongoing flaring up culture of violence vs. culture of peace in Abyei and the linking of Darfur crisis by Washington’s lobbyists and public policy makers with South Sudan. This is rocky, slippery slope path and dangerous episode for the very essence of the peace, tranquility and political stability as well as development in the African nation of Sudan. The South and Darfur are two separate political problems that have two separate conflict resolutions that do not compliment or depend on each other. As far as the Abyei is concerned, the Abyei Protocol and the Abyei Border Commission (ABC) Report have been empowered to resolve this conflict. Based on my own research and investigation as an academic expert, more beef should have been added on the Abyei Border Commission (ABC) Report by Sudanese experts in particular. There are lot of flaws and gaps to be filled in for smooth conflict resolution on Abyei issue. The recently signed roadmap on Abyei by the partners is also full of flaws that could become problematic in the months ahead. The two partners are caught in a grapevine or locked in a tinder box. The international experts who wrote the report were one way or another patrons and long time partisans who have done strong public relations on behalf of the SPLM/A for years in the US and Europe. As a result, they have had negative opinion against the GOS, acted partial and pro-SPLM and/or bias or prejudice against Khartoum. They did everything humanly possible in favor of the SPLM/ rhetoric and/or against or for either party, i.e., the GOS or the SPLM because they were either paid for by the US and/or had some influence in the SPLM leadership. It would be fair to conclude that the ABC Report was anti-Government of Sudan and pro-SPLM in its entirety.
This is one of the premier raison d’etre that the commission is not interested to reconvene any further discussions on the report that could unravel or unlock the hidden damage and the new tinder box or the Pandora’s Box behind the said report. We strongly recommend that the ABC Report deserves to be reviewed by neutral and independent experts and scholars. Additionally, should the two partners disagreed on what to do or fail to achieve via an amicable agreement to ameliorate the situation on the issue in question, they should freely refer the case of Abyei issue either to the former US Special Envoy to Sudan, Senator John Danforth (MO) to revisit the document that he drafted with experts and political leaders asphyxiated with the problem and/or to resort to seeking a “neutral” third party with no leanings and “strings attached” to either party to arbitrate and mediate for a peaceful conflict resolution. The third option, of course, the partners would return to war as predicated by the preceded fact findings and events happening now in the area of Abyei in the past few weeks. The war option would be costly not only for the “disputants” or the disagreed parties, but also the innocent civilian populations who have been dragged into this human catastrophe by the disputants or the disagreeing partners. The locals- meaning the nine Ngok Dinka chiefdoms, the Misseriya nomads and others- who are also permanent residents and full citizens of Abyei with equal rights and duties in the area of Abyei, should have a say in determining the future of Abyei. In my opinion, of course, in as far as the conflict resolution is concerned, all the inhabitants of Abyei territory with no exception, should be privileged and included in the process because at the end of the day they would be the ones inhabiting or living together in the area of Abyei as permanent residents with other indigenous populations, namely, the nine Ngok Dinka chiefdoms, the Misseriya and others.
Furthermore, the partners should table or refer the matter or the debacle before the UN Security Council, the Special Committee or the Fourth Committee, the Intergovernmental Authority and Development (IGAD) mediators and the International Court of Justice (ICJ) for arbitration and mediation. For many South Sudanese, it’s not worth a life to be destroyed because of Abyei. We could not agree more with Kiir’s statement to the UN Security Council in Juba that “No return to war” in Abyei. Kiir’s made this statement because his army has rebelled to fight in Abyei. We reckoned that the Ngok Dinka are southerners but also we should be conscious of the fact the land that they have been living on is extraterritorial, outside jurisdiction and they have had to that effect assimilated and acculturated with the North for more than 108 years. The most recent areas annexed to the North arbitrarily such as Kurmuk, Chali Fil in northeastern Upper Nile and Kufur Al-Nahas…etc., in Bahr-el-Ghazel and Bentiu in the oil and mineral Great Upper Nile respectively, should be the most legitimate cases for the SPLM to have stronger claims rather than Abyei that had been out of South Sudan as of 1.1.1956. It should be noted that when the geographical boundaries were demarcated between the North and South in 1937, the area known as Abyei today was already annexed voluntarily by the Chief Deng Kuol Majok to be administered in Southern Kordufan. There is one point that the GOS should bear in mind is that the despite of the rhetoric of “no return to war” in Abyei, the SPLM is preparing for war throughout the North-South border. There is now huge troop surge throughout the area. Kiir is determined to start a war though the SPLA does not have loyalty rather than to accept defeat in an electoral process for transformation to democracy in his country.
It would be historically, geographically, politically and legally tough to prove whether the populations are Southerners or Northerners. Significantly, the oil factor in Abyei further complicated the issue much more then it was already complex issue in the previous years. Under these circumstances, we think that the people are a “bridge” between the North and South to foster stronger and dynamic unity in diversity. Francis Mading Deng Majok in most of his works termed Abyei as a good example of cultural diversity between the North and South. The Ngok Dinka through their own traditional chief and leader Deng Kuol Majok decided freely more than 108 years ago to accede themselves to Southern Kordufan based on their free will and consent. They were never under duress. So, if this was the case, it was a free and fair decision that could not be altered by anyone without any collective responsibility of the community involved. They Abyei’s sons and daughters who have joined the SPLM/A should not hold hostage the exercise of the right of self-determination for the people of South Sudan because of Abyei. Based on my firsthand knowledge as one of the architects of the Intergovernmental Authority and Development Declaration of Principles (IGAD/DOP) on 17 May 1994, the Abyei, Darfur, Southern Blue (Ignessena) and Eastern Sudan were not part of the said declaration of principles. Such issues were thoroughly discussed in the presence of the SPLM/A and were concluded to be extra-territorial and had no historical, geographical, political and legal relations, inter alia, with the South. They were acknowledged and legally recognized as part of the Northern complex with separate forums (fora) for conflict resolution. The Southern Sudan Problem is the main problem that was given national, regional and international top priority. On the contrary, it did not mean that such flaring up issues, were not given top national priority. Nevertheless, if the GOS fails to resolve such pending problems left unresolved, they could also pose dangerous national threat to achieve political stability and tangible socioeconomic and human development.
THE SYNOPSIS OF THE SECRET PLAN
This paper presents the synopsis of the confidential and Secret Plan of the late dictator Dr. John Garang de Mabior during the Navivasha Peace round of talks in 2005. We could not know for certain the actual parameters of the terms of this alleged secret plan because one of the parties is dead and other is under tremendous pressure from his own “Islamic Higher Sura” to tell more about his encounters with the late Garang de Mabior in Navivasha. It was, of course, the said Islamic Higher Sura that delegated power and authority to Ali Taha to make peace by all means possible. Supposedly, that the said secret plan was known then, it would have been better to continue with the war rather than signing an elusive, piecemeal and dubious peace agreement that’s aimed at targeting certain ethnic groups for extermination, marginalization and/or there should have been no peace agreement at all. Nevertheless, we should give thanks to Almighty God for saving and preserving the South by showing us in its own way the wrongs done by the two leaders, which they ought not to have done in the first place. For a bad peace is better than war. It is a serious plan that the targeted groups should not take likely or on faith value and that no true southern nationalists who made the ultimate sacrifice for the cause of the South to subscribe to it. The plan is tribalist, racist, divisive and could not unite the South as a nation-state or polity. We did not bear arms to create an apartheid state or Machiavellian-Praetorian-Draconian state. We did bear arms to create a true democratic and transparent state to be governed and develops on modern civilized values above and beyond tribal hegemonic tendencies, its inherent affiliations, its loyalties and its primordial identifications. I have a dream that the South would become democratic, de-tribalized and live up to higher spirits vs. the mediocre spirits. In my opinion, I believe it is only those who are gripped with fears of the unknown and diatribes that would dwell on the tribal exploits. If any of the southern leaders have such devilish thinking, neo-thinking behavior in their minds, it is better for them to quit public policy decision-making. Private sector of the economy would be idle and lucrative for them if they have the capacities and the capabilities of taking off in the field or the industry. However, I am certain that many of them do not even understand pretty well the idea of entrepreneurship in contemporary world of business and entrepreneurship. We have to have Bill Gates of Microsoft, and Warren Buffets, Oparahas and the Rockefellers…etc., in Sudan and South Sudan in particular.
I have a dream of building a multicultural, multiethnic, multi-religious and multiracial state that’s united, diverse, transparent and accountable, with good governance, and the rule of law, fairness, equality, social justice and a constitution that’s supreme document in the land. I took up arms to create a multicultural democratic state. I conscientiously deplored any form of domination of one group by another. I stand up for classical democracy and its true values. The said secret plan was only catered by pseudo-nationalists and cowards of the cowards, conspirators and traitors. As far as the late John Garang was concerned, the said secret plan was a dawn deal. It was a secret document that was deliberately and willfully intended to exterminate, marginalize many nationalities discriminately and relegated them to the position of second class citizenship in the land of their birthrights. For instance, Salva Kiir’s expulsion of the south-first-group from the SPLM is based on this secret plan. The Garang’s secret plan was to empower the SPLM leadership to rule via tyrannical rule, oligarchic and autocratic rule at the expense of other nationalities in the south Sudan. Garang’s specific mission is congruent to John Okello’s mission in Zanzibar when he staged a coupe d’etat against the Sultan of Zanzibar that united the Island of Zanzibar with the then Tanganyika to become the modern Tanzania in 1964. Many Arabs and Muslims residents, including the Sultan of Zanzibar were exterminated and the world absolutely did not do a dawn thing about it. General John Okello’s actions against the Arabs and Muslims population on the Island of Zanzibar in 1964 were genocide as defined in the Geneva Conventions and the UN Charter respectively. No measures taken to indict the perpetrators of the said crime against humanity. The experience in Zanzibar could only be compared to the British genocide against the Nuer people during the Anglo-Nuer War (1900-1930). In actual fact, the late Garang was anti-Nuer and had envisaged to exterminate the Nuer. There is no bone about this dream. How could this be possible? In short, it would have been impractical, if not impossible, to attain this political dream in this fragile African nation of Sudan where everyone self-conscious, self-pointed, self-ware and self-anointed politician with inquisitive minded creature and street-wise politician that argues his/her case eloquently in the street alleys without reprisals, hindrances, fear and bias or prejudice.
Even the Nuer who was pro-Garang would have reacted negatively once they realized that he (Garang) had a dream for a “final solution” the Nuer people in South Sudan. The reaction would have been devastating for many people who would be non-Nuer in the South. The Nuer would have fought like mad dogs to protect themselves from Garang’s mayhem and physical annihilation. We should all be grateful that it did not happen because the south would be filled with blood flowing like electric current in every street alley. The failed marginalized of the Nuer in the South was part of this plan. The attempted and aborted removal of Dr. Riek Machar recent weeks by Salva Kiir is also the continuity of the said plan. Now, since the failed SPLM Convention in Juba, the sky is now the limit for the Nuer and their Equatorian allies to unite ranks and files against the SPLM the so–called Garang’s boys and Slava’s Gogrial Kitchen Cabinet or Gogrial Mafioso. It was remarkable that a plan that was strategically planned for years was unravels in 72 hours and fell apart.
The revelation of this secret pact, in fact, erased from history and political science books that would be written about the legacy of John Garang as supportive of the culture of violence vs. the culture of peace, including other sociopolitical intrigues to the very people that he (Garang) wanted to liberate if he had the desire to liberate them at all. A good point that many southerners failed to underscore was the fact that the late Garang was not fighting for the South. John Garang was fighting for grand political ambition to become the first Dinka Bor President of Sudan and did deploy every political intrigues, maneuverings, deceptions, manipulations to achieve power by any means necessary. Millions, who have died in the name of liberation, would surely be disappointed in their own graves and the masses internally displaced from their homesteads would certainly probe whether it was worthwhile to die for the South and/or be displaced from one’s homestead. The revelation is the darkest hour of the SPLM political scheme and history of blunders from its inception in June 1983 up to its ongoing Second National Convention in Juba the second capital of the Federal Republic of Sudan. The readers of this piece of work if you’re patriots and nationalists with visions for the Sudan and South Sudan in particular and as an intellectuals with positive frame of reference (worldview) in particular, whether a pro-SPLM or not, take it seriously but moderately and you’d have to kneel down and say thanks to God Almighty for having revealed this deadly and dangerous document. Surely, knowing something about this secret plan is your liberation and the liberation of those who framed this document specifically for Sudan and South Sudan in particular. We should avoid any negative reaction but we should act resolutely and reasonably above and beyond the said document otherwise our struggle would end up in vain.
Certainly, the document was engineered or designed and directed against one specific nationality-that’s the Nuer- that everyone of the so-called Garang’s boys or orphans sees in his/her frame of reference (worldview) as the real enemy or pests against their self-proclaimed imaginary majoritarianism, leadership and building of an SPLM dynasty or kingdom in the South. This plan has constituted today two issues of interest to all southerners, vis-à-vis, the “Confirmed” and “Unconfirmed” and “No Units” in the SPLA that’s has become a party’s army rather than a national army that takes from politicians rather than from the SPLM party’s head. The claim of leadership by the SPLM is impractical, if not impossible, because they are trained as “destructionists” rather than “constructionists” in the first place. Almost every SPLM person, per se, inculcated in his/her mind the perception of the Nuer nationality as a “social disease” that could be diagnosed scientifically as the malignant tumor that’s the real fear of the Nuer (Nuerophobia). The late John Garang rose from poverty because of the Nuer nationality generosity to become rich and famous in the world and turned around to become the Nuer’s nationality public enemy number one. He did organize a scheme of genocide against the Nuer from 1984-1987 and was defeated. This was the root causes of the invasion and occupation of Bor in the aftermath of the 1991 split. The Garang’s boys perception of the Nuer as a people and a nation is similar to the Palestinian Arabs perception of the Israelis as non-Arab people and non-Arab-Jewish state in the heartland of the Arab and Muslim world in the Middle East. In a nutshell, no person would ever attempt to dislodge the Nuer from the Nuerland in South Sudan. Let’s those who had any designs to dislodge and genocide them indiscriminately should be prepared to make first that they read the Anglo-Nuer War historiography. The Nuer nationality is ever ready to defend itself from any external and internal invasion and occupation. By God grace and courage, w will destroy anyone that deems to destroy the Nuer nationality. We have been patient and our patient is running out of steam. We welcome and work closely with those who wanted peace sand peaceful co-existence. As for the Nuer traitors and betrayers, we know you and we know how to get you and deal with accordingly. So, be on the look out because big brother science is watching you!
Hypothetically, let’s assume that the Arab armies in the Middle East had a miraculous superior natural power to defeat and succeed against Israel, many Israelis would be genocide, slaughtered, abused and the survivors would either be expelled or made to be perpetual slaves in the Middle East. This analogy is true of how the SPLM power elites feel, devilishly and constantly planning secretively on the annihilation of the Nuer nationality if they had a natural superpower in South Sudan and on the pace of this Planet-Earth. In short, if the SPLM power elites had a chance, they would not hesitate to commit genocide and exterminate the Nuer nation and its people and would have no remorse at all. They have targeted the Nuer for total destruction in this newly discovered document similar to Adolf Hitler’s Holocaust against 6 million Jews, Gypsies and other minorities in Nazi Germany and Occupied Europe during the World War II. The Nuer people being the most vulnerable targeted species for extermination must and ought to design sophisticated means more than what they have known against the SPLM power elites or any group of individuals who constructed devilish plans that be may allied themselves with them for a ‘final solution,’ genocide, crimes against humanity and destruction of the Nuer nationality. Surely, such genocide would not happen because historically, the SPLM power elites have not defeated the Nuer nationality in any military confrontation.
On the contrary, it could be the reverse. The Nuer are traditionally democratic, egalitarian and religious people who could not possibly commit such an act that’s contrary to the traditional taboos, religious beliefs, customary law, law of war and law of peace, ethics and integrity and codified customary, national and international laws of peace and warfare. Although it is a well established fact that Garang-Salva leaderships have embarked on anti-Nuer sentiments, time and space alone would spontaneously resolve and conclude them peacefully. However, the Nuer is confident and courageous that the devilish and feeble minded thugs, hoodlums, hooligans, morons and rednecks reactionaries in the SPLM would not dare to start their self-destruction because no Nuer whether a pro-SPLM or not would allow this event to occur in the Nuerland. The Nuer nationality has not been historically defeated by any foreign or domestic power. They resisted the British colonial rule for more than 30 years and were not defeated by the superior British military power machine nor did they surrender to the British colonial rule in South Sudan. In this 21st century, the Nuer people have the capacity and the ability to resist anyone that dares to destroy their existence as a nationality with a system in the South or in Sudan in general. Professor Sharon E. Hutchinson writes that “Although many Nuer were embittered by the massive military campaigns that led up to their definitive defeat by the British colonial forces in 1929, they could do little but recognize the military superiority of their foreign invaders and accommodated themselves to the new administrative policies imposed”.
In fact, the Nuer did not submit or succumb to the British colonial rule in South Sudan. Based on the Nuer traditional, oral and modern history, they were not defeated by the British colonial forces. It was a win-win situation. The Nuer was the only nationality that the British failed to colonize in Sub-Saharan Africa and the only group that was not enslaved during the lucrative and shameful Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade from 1500-1800s.Up to this day the number one enemy among the Nuer is not the North but the British who had committed genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity in the Nuerland. It is has been a double standard and hypocritical on the part of the UK that it could possibly superimpose sanctions, embargoes and blames any countries, i.e., the African nations of Zimbabwe and Sudan about human rights violations. For instance, when Ian Smith White minority regime declared Unilateral Declaration of Independence(UDI) from the UK in the 1960s, it failed to undertake any military action against the then Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe). On the other hand, when Afro-Caribbean nation of Jamaica demanded independence, the UK did not hesitate to send in troops to suppress the uprising. Realistically, the UK had a double standard and hypocrisy in Rhodesia and Jamaica policies. Another case to cite against the UK and the US was Pakistan. When President Perez Musahreff of Pakistan security operatives were supporting the Taliban in Afghanistan, economic sanctions were imposed. It was isolated and expelled from the British Commonwealth of Nations. But when Pakistan reversed the coin and became an ally of the US-UK and became anti-Taliban and cooperated by supporting the UK and the US interests in their war against terrorism and Islamic radicals, it was completely forgiven and welcomed back to the club. At the same time both the UK and the US continuously were seeking ways and means of imposing sanctions against President Robert Mugabe of Zimbabwe democratically elected government because of the re-division of the fertile land controlled by White minority equitably to all Zimbabweans. This was also a double standard, hypocrisy, racist and poor judgment. It also indicated that the mannerism and foreign policy rapprochement in which the UK and the US were dealing with Pakistan and Zimbabwe were at different wavelengths and standardized yardstick of measurements. In short, they were leaning on Pakistan and were tougher on Zimbabwe.
The UK would be the first sinister and predator to have committed genocide or what the late British PM Sir Winston Churchill described as the “crime without a name” during World War II. Many European ex-colonial powers in Africa from Cape to Cairo and from the tiny African nation of Djibouti in the Horn of Africa to the first African Republic of Liberia on the West Coast of Africa, surely, committed genocide, atrocities, war crimes and crimes against humanity in the name of colonialism. Any problems orchestrated by the SPLM power elites against the ferocious fighting Nuer could have serious consequences. Things could fall apart and the South could disintegrate for good as well as forcing many people to become refugees for life. So, I bet to Salva Kiir, do not to push the Nuer too hard to the brink and the wall because it could have deadly equal opposite reaction. In other words, in the Newton’s gravitational law states that to every action there is equal opposite reaction. This is the first law of motion or the Einstein’s thermodynamic theory on gravitational force. We urge and appeal to Salva Kiir that he should be mindful not to provoke a situation that he could not possibly quench and that could possibly blow up on his face. The Nuer would be ready for the zero-hour but would not be the first nor the last to start any confrontation. Should Salva Kiir wants to involve the British and the American or any other mercenaries in the SPLM war of extermination or the “final solution” against the Nuer question, they would be ever ready to duel with them and for sure many of them would be returned to wherever they came from in plastic bags. We are afraid that the South could become another Iraq or Somalia. As for the CPA, we should warn Salva Kiir and the SPLM leadership to kiss it goodbye and let them look for sanctuaries as refugees for the next several years in East Africa or in the luxurious villas that they have purchased through corruption on public purse or coffer in the USA, Europe and Australia, including East Africa. They could not any longer live like tourists in the South. This lifestyle would have to be changed and comes to an end for good.
Perhaps, one political solution that’s needed to be studied thoroughly would be for the people of Greater Upper Nile to unite their ranks and files and pull out of the South and declares the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). For instance, the former Soviet satellites states, including Kosovo are good cases to cite have set precedence. The would-be CIS in Greater Upper Nile would not be the first or the last to start the Armageddon in the South. Alternatively, another solution would be for the Greater Upper Nile region to push assiduously and vigorously for decentralization and shared federalism in Sudan and the South in particular with closer links to the Northern states. After all, there are no shredded historical relations amongst the southern people, cultures and regions. Probably, the only thing that unites southerners is the war with the North otherwise each political culture, political socialization and region is distinct from each other. Greater Upper Nile region could be viable because of its oil fields and natural gas and other natural resources. Of course, such a proposed alternative political solution could harmonize and prevent the eventual annihilation or destruction of neither the SPLM nor the Nuer populations should the morons power elites in Juba decided to wage war of genocide against the Nuer and compelled them to be reunited with the South against their free will and consent by means of an armed force. The Nuer nation and its people would be at a standby, waiting and ready to the day that Slava Kiir would declare the Third World War and Holocaust against the Nuer people. Morally and politically, the Nuer has no enmity with the SPLM as a people because they are the founding fathers of the SPLM/A that so many have hijacked and carried as a pedestal. The SPLM historically belong to the Nuer because they were its founding fathers a decade before the inception of the Marxist-Leninist SPLM/A from 1972-1983. Naturally, there was (and still is) always extreme power struggle in any states formation. Politics, per se, is a contest between the good guys and the bad guys that must be conducted humanely, democratically and at the end of the day they must and ought to unite for the sake of the general good of the communities that make up the corpus of the polity or the sate. For instance, Senator Hilary Clinton and Senator Baraka Obama though they belong to the same party (Democratic Party) they were at each other throat and at the end when Hilary Clinton declared to quit the democratic primaries, they let bygone be bygone and they had to reconcile and reunite their physical and mental energies peacefully and democratically for the sake of the party’s unity. Politics, per se, is only a contest between two good guys who are not mortal enemies in the first place. In Africa and the Third World in general, politics is a dirty game that could lead to death. For instance, the current situations between President Robert Mugabe and Morgan Tsangari of the Democratic Movement for Change (MDC) in Zimbabwe and the long debacle story in Myanmar (Burma) and the democratic leader Sue Kay-Kee and the military dictatorship in that Asian country are the best two cases to cite herein. In South Sudan, the late John Garang and Salva Kiir eliminated the best and the brightest south Sudanese during the war years. In internally, individuals such as Dr. Riek Gai Kok of the NCP a fought a cold war against his fellow southerners and forces them to leave and join the SPLM in Juba. He’s also a suspect in the murder some with poison, including the late Major-General Elijah Hon Top, a graduate of Beirut College, Lebanon, just a few hours before he was sworn in as the President of South Sudan Coordinated Council in Juba in 2000.
The SPLM leaders should know and underscore that the Nuer would not act first according to the law on self-defense and survival as the first laws of nature. The Nuer people have nothing to fear except fear itself and should never be intimidated nor to become statistics like the Native Americans in North America when the white man invaded and occupied their land, the final solution of the Jews in Nazi Germany and Occupied Europe during World War II, the Kurdish Genocide by the Young Turks in 1915, the Shiite Muslims in Basra, Southern Iraq by the late Saddam Hussein security forces, the forgotten extermination more than 700,000 Ovambo people in Northern Namibia under the Kaiser’s colonial occupation, domination and exploitation during World War I (1914-1919) and the Hutu thugs hooligans and hoodlums genocide against Tutsi in Rwanda in 1994. The Nuer would not permit another mass killing in the Nuerland similar to the Nuer “Lost Boys” in Eastern Equatoria by the Dinka SPLM commanders in the aftermath of the split in 1991 and then followed by intensive inter-factional fighting as well as other experiences in post-independent Africa. We would remain at maximum alert and those who would dare to launch an attack on the Nuer nation to perpetrate the crime of genocide would certainly pay a very high price. We would not permit another extermination of more than 7,000 soldiers and officers murdered by the notorious SPLM Cdr. Daniel Awet Akot in Bhar-el-Ghazel and 15-60,000 civilians whose backgrounds were biracial either of a Nuer father and Dinka mother or a Dinka father and a Nuer mother and vice versa murdered in cold blood by the SPLM/A Cdr. Maggar Aciek along the Nuer-Dinka border villages and small trading posts. The time would come when criminals such as Akot and Aciek would be charged for war crimes and crimes against humanity alive or posthumously. We call on the ICC to investigate war crimes, crimes against humanity, atrocities, and other heinous human rights violations in South Sudan. Failure on the ICC to undertake this action, we may resort to take matters into our own hands. The SPLM leaders should be indicted on such alleged crimes. Southerners have not forgotten the atrocities, war crimes and crimes against humanity committed by the SPLM/A in the past and continuing to do so up to present in the South. They would not go un-challenge either in the court of law or physically. We should remain vigilante and patient. Realistically, we have survivors of such crimes against humanity who could testify against or for the above mentioned SPLM leaders without any contradictions. The Nuer political leaders and intellectuals who have discovered this “secret plan” designed by the late Dr. Garang to exterminate the Nuer nationality would act accordingly. They should unite their ranks and files to call for an urgent and immediate inter-Nuer Convention to determine their leaders and to sign a new Covenant of unity to have every right to serve, protect and defend themselves from this newly discovered internal ominous enemy- the SPLM power elites supported by external powers and their physical operatives or agents against the Nuer people. Those individuals identified as traitors, betrayers and sold their fellows kin and kith with only a few silvers and dollars should extricate themselves from participating in any convention that could foster unity and brotherhood amongst the Nuer people. We have to have a common bond for the preservation of our culture, civilization and way of life as a free people in the world and South Sudan in particular. This is not tribalism but it represents the vital national interest of the Nuer people of South Sudan and the Nuer Nation International (NNI).
The CPA in this situation remains in jeopardy or a death trap that has to be declared as “persona non grata” that it is neither the Holy Qur’an nor the Holy Bible. It needs to be revisited by its architects otherwise it remains in jeopardy. The CPA was designed to destroy lives rather than saving them. Moreover, it is only a piece of paper that lacks substance if its signatories are not honest with each other to implement it. It has to be revisited before it is too late. The Nuer leaders have known all along that there is something wrong going on secretly within the SPLM hierarchy and its intentions to exterminate, marginalize and humiliate the Nuer and other non-Dinka groupings in the South. It should be stated at the onset that no one would accept any humiliation, marginalization and extermination. We all have fought and die for the South as equals. Hence, if anyone assumes and thinks that the South belongs to him/her as private property, we would like to know now rather than later. For instance, the Yac-Dim Plan was to retire most of the Nuer senior military officers without any quid-pro-quo and justification. They were afraid and concerned of the large number of Nuer officers with many young college graduates. The self-appointed President Salva Kiir was also co-opted as one of the architects of the Yac-Dim Plan and approved it without any prior thoughts and retroactions. Of course, if the plan was executed and implemented at all, the South could have been set on ablaze in broad day light compared to the City of Atlanta that was burnt down to ashes by the US General Sherman during the American Civil War (1860-1865). The Yac-Dim Plan was the most controversial and crucial plan that died with them, unfortunately.
Prior to that period, however, Dr. Garang had his own plan engineered in Navivasha a priori signing of the CPA in 2005. The late Garang was a military political intellectual who knew the power of the Nuer pretty well more than Slava Kiir who’s Johnny comes lately and far away from the Upper Nile. He (Garang) was ready to listen, dialogue and make compromises with the Nuer leaders and military officers who started the armed struggle for more than a decade before he could join them and staged a coup d’etate against them in Bill Pham abated by the former Ethiopian Marxist-Leninist regime. For the readers, the information obtained from direct sources in Navivasha, the late Garang admitted then that he took power from Colonel Samuel Gai Tut through a coup d’etat abated by the Marxist-Leninist Ethiopian regime. He reckoned the most important significant roles played by the Nuer in the armed struggle. Most importantly, he was wiser and knew that the Nuer power could have been his backbone against the Bhar-el-Ghazel SPLM that despises and undermines his leadership retrospect to 2004. For instance, when he had problems flared up between him (Garang) and Salva Kiir in 2004, he (Garang) relied on the Nuer leaders and their military power machine. It was the Nuer threats that made Salva Kiir to back off despite the caches of lethal weapons that were waiting for his orders to be airlifted from Khartoum to Yei by Sudan Air Force planes, including more than US$3m in cash to be delivered to Yei. He (Salva) was a collaborator and traitor terms that the SPLM-Torit faction utilized impressively against the Nasir-faction in the years of the split. Fact, most of the SPLM-Torit faction families were on Sudan’s Embassy payroll in Nairobi, Kenya, for years. I discovered during my tenured as an Ambassador and Head of the Peace and Human Rights Department, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Khartoum.
Because of Kiir’s dissension against Garang was foiled and aborted because of the Nuer factor. So, the Nuer is the King’s maker and the King’s destroyer and nothing could be accomplished in the South without the Nuer nation and its people. Currently, Kiir is interested to start a war in Abyei. It has been the Nuer power that obstructed his actions. Frankly speaking, no Nuer with a sound mind and soul should absolutely die because of Abyei. The Yei River Rally and the emergence of the so-called Daniel Akot’s 39 Laws and other indiscriminate plans to marginalize the Nuer from the GOSS were clear indicators that Slava Kiir is an incompetent leader who could not unite the South. He bases his leadership on patronage and on the tribal exploits. The GOS security organs also knew this fact but remained low profile because the so-called CPA constrained and prohibited it from any direct interference in Southern affairs for the time being. Furthermore, there are many signs which indicated that there is an anti-Nuer sentiment in the South particularly from the SPLM power elite who are weak; lack sense of nationalism; national interest; cowards; negatively proud in spirit and morons who have no allies in the South. Nevertheless, the Nuer people could be ready for any eventuality. The struggle for power should not lead up to self-destruction of anyone. It is only a game that men and nation-state do play while at the same time they cooperate for mutual interests of their people and nation-states interests. The rule of the game is simple and goes like this, there are no permanent enemies, nor permanent friends, but permanent interests.
When we asked our secret sources who are part of this dangerous and divisive plan? It was alleged that the elder Dinka statesmen. (We will leave names out for security reasons) were the chief engineers or architects of this secret plan to destroy the Nuer nation. We would not be surprised such statesmen involvement in this plan as long as it is intended to destroy the Nuer that has for generations perceived as the mortal enemy. In the SPLM, the late Garang and Salva Kiir tried to implement the policy of extermination or a “final solution” of the Nuer, the Murle, the Mandara, the Latuko and other Equatorians who have had historic feuds on ethnic, cattle rustling and perceived to be the arch enemies of the Dinka Bor tribesmen but they failed disastrously, unfortunately. All along, the Nuer leaders and intellectuals knew this plan but they have been waiting patiently for its to materialize They kept quite because of the peace that gives hope to all Sudanese and Southern Sudanese in particular after almost fifty (50) years of warfare and destruction. All Southern families with no exception have paid the ultimate sacrifices one way or another in the war. Therefore, any marginalization of anyone by anyone is an unforgivable since and tantamount to the declaration of war. The Navivasha Agreement otherwise known as the CPA was a bilateral agreement between two parties. It is a “blockage” because it denies other political parties to partake in any significant roles in the decision-making, planning and designing of the national affairs. It could not also be called Comprehensive Peace Agreement because it is not transparent, comprehensive and inclusive. In the eyes of many southerners, CPA is assumed to be a private property of Garang, Taha the international peace sponsors (the USA, the UK, Norway and Italy) who did the preparation and the cooking of the agreement while excluding all other political and military factions that have fought in the war, including the founding fathers of the armed struggle that the late Garang hijacked it from them and abated by the former Ethiopian Marxist-Leninist dictator Colonel Mengistu Haile Miriam.
Succinctly, the American, the British, the Norwegian and the Italian delegates were ignorance and naiveté of the Garang’s tribalist, racist and divisive secret plan because they had no knowledge of it. Let’s assumed that they had any knowledge of the said plan at all, they should have as a prerequisite, resolved the South-South divide through the traditional mechanism of conflict resolution prior to the North-South conflict as well as the traditional and historic Dinka-Nuer ethno-political rivalries for power, control and leadership issues a priori to the signing of the peace agreement. Unless the leadership issue was squarely resolved, democratic transformation would not take place within the SPLM. It is disinterested and un-willing to share power with other southern political parties would surely create lots of difficulties, bolts and nuts to cracks before or on referendum on the exercise of the right of self-determination in 2011. It is now established fact that the CPA was power elites’ secret weapon or a pact to entrench control and the extermination of anyone that resists them in South Sudan. Furthermore, it has been utilized as a ladder by the power elites to exert power and control at the helm to build the long anticipated SPLM political dynasty, economic aggrandizement and self-glorifications. They are power hungry to dominate others because they are weak and mediocre in spirits and thus see power as the only alternative for them to superimpose their political culture, whims and idiosyncrasies on others. Marxist-Leninist ideology despite it popularity has almost complete absence of any support for it in the South. The SPLM Marxism-Leninism that has some resemblance to the Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF), the Tigray Liberation Front (TPLF) and the Movement of National Resistance Army (MNRA to mobilize their various populations and develop popular institutions. Instead, the SPLM/A’s Marxism was (and still is) so crude as to sometimes targeted and classify the entire tribe or nationality as “enemies of the people’s and held southern politicians to collectively constitute a ‘bourgeosified elite” and it was (and still is) implemented by leaders who were themselves dictators, reactionaries, ultraconservatives, tribalists, undereducated and warlords who have no remorse to destroy lives that none of them had any ability to return. Consequently, the ideology had little or no resonance with the people in whose names sake the SPLM/A launched it revolt, and this is not surprising because in the first instance it was largely developed to meet foreign policy interest rather than Sudanese national interests.
In Chapter Nine of the SPLM/A Manifesto (1983, P.23) entitled the “Real and Potential Enemies of the SPLA/SPLM, it has identified them as the Northern bourgeosified elite who had everything to lose in a socialist revolution and Southern Sudanese bourgeosified elite who are of two categories, vis-à-vis, those who were and those who were not associated with Anya-Anya 1. Accordingly and deductively, the interests of both the Northern-Southern bourgeosified elites are the same. Their real interests- referring to the Northern-Southern bourgeosified elites- are self- enrichment, including building of multi-story buildings and amassed of wealth or other forms of investments. This is a false premise and false accusation without any substantiation. It is the SPLM/A bourgeosified power elites that have now amassed wealth, money in the South retrospect to the signing of the CPA. They have bought luxurious villas abroad and established big business such as the late Garang’s transporting company in Khartoum known as “Baba Bino”(where does your father comes from in Dinka-Bor dialect) bus lines operated and managed by James Kok Ruai and Madam Nyandeng Garang in the North. In Juba the SPLM power elites have built hotels, banks, and control most of the government contracts for their children and wives. In the semiautonomous GOSS, they are the most corrupt and incompetent officials in the world. They have failed to develop the South in the past three years since they had been in power.
In the South, there would be absolutely no SPLM or anyone domination because they have no basis at all to internally colonized anyone. Historically, the there is no evidence that the SPLM or anyone specific group could colonize and dominate anyone in the South. The current failures of Slava Kiir and others that preceded him are indicative that the SPLM power elites lack experience, management skills, strategic planning in traditional or modern concept of development, governance, public policy decision-making and the vital national interest that supersedes one’s interest. In fact, the non-SPLM southerners are better experienced administrators, strategic planners, developers and skilled leaders because they always made sure that all people are represented and included in the system and bureaucracy. For instance, when Dr. Riak Machar signed the Khartoum Peace Agreement in 1997, followed by the formation of the South Sudan Coordinating Council (SSCC), all nationalities were represented and had their fair shakes in the southern government. There were no corruption; no nepotism; no tribalism; no favoritism; no sectarianism; no Nuerism; Shillukism; Dinkaism; or Zandeism or any other “isms” that are prevalent in the South nowadays. Southerners inside Sudan have better qualifications, management skills and work experience to advance or improve the system. They have the capacity not to compromise with anyone that attempts to superimpose its taboos on them or by uniting with the marginalized groups who are opposed to any form of internal colonialism, domination and exploitation in the South. Historically, the two big tribes in the North such as Ja’alyeen and Shagi have had old historic rivalries similar to the acute Nuer-Dinka rivalries in the South. Nevertheless, they do get along fine. When it comes to the North-South divide, they are united not only by Islam as Umma Al-Islamiya, but also by their common interest and the determination to project their cultural unity to dominate the South and other peripheral regions. These synopsizes are written for the most vulnerable groups that have been targeted by the SPLM power elites to know them well, digest them well, chew them well and swallow them well. They should react positively, diligently, systematically, scientifically, methodologically and to analyze the precede issues wisely and diligently. It does not matter whether such a plan was designed to target certain nationalities and the Nuer nationality in particular, it could have an adverse effect on others. The SPLM leaders should understand that democracy, per se, allows opposition and, of course, it is healthy and progressive for constructive nation-building. We could have opposition parties but the bottom line is that they must and ought to work together for the good of the majority of community’s population. They could not become productive and efficient or functional citizens in a Gestapo state. The SPLM should underscore that the Nuer nationality as one of the largest, strongest and potentially rich in oil and other minerals could not be freed when no one would be freed. There would be no significant progress, political stability, sustainable socioeconomic and human development in the post-war Sudan and South Sudan in particular. As a pre-requisite to the above mentioned would be the attainment of unity of purpose and south Sudan dialogue before it is too late.
To the Nuer nation in Sudan and the Nuer Nation International (NNI) in North America, Europe, Nordic countries and the World Under (Australia) the time as come for us to wake up and to unite our ranks and files to deal appropriately this with forthcoming ominous, menace and probable physical threat that’s awaiting us as a people and a nation, our children, our women and our elderly in South Sudan. It is a threat that falls within our realm. We can control it sufficiently with minimal loses and maximum gains. Every Nuer woman, child, elderly, politicians, academics and intellectuals should reckon that there is something big and really big that’s awaiting us here at the home front. We have to mobilize our energies to strategize to prevent this event through our own might and bootstraps, physical, mental might and determination to avert it from happening before its too late. It could become a boomer-rang on the faces of its frames if it is not abrogated or aborted at the end of the day. The SPLM based on Garang’s secret plan the Nuer people are not predestined to be genocide and annihilated by the SPLM power elites with foreign powers backing them compared to the Tutsi in Rwanda in 1994. We should also be mindful of the gruesome genocide of the Nuer minors or child soldiers or the Lost Boys by the SPLM/A notorious commanders, hoodlums and hooligans in Eastern Equatoria in aftermath of the SPLM/A split in 1991. The world was slow or did not care at all to react to the Tutsi genocide. We are sure that the world too, would certainly remain aloof and silent as it did in Rwanda Genocide against Tutsi by Hutus radicals in 1994 with due knowledge of the 2,500 UN peacekeeping force in Kigali, the capitol of the Central African nation of Rwanda in the Great Lakes region. Knowing world’s affairs and its public opinion well as a learned Sudanese with expertise and experience in government, politics, academic and diplomacy, the Nuer would have to fan out for them because no one would come to their rescue until after the fact.
The Nuer as a people and nation should critically strategize and make critical thinking, neo-thinking, Aristocratic thinking and strategic plans to counteract this plan. We should make reflections on the events that transferred and that every Nuer should reflect on the experiences, difficulties and hardships that they faced when many of them were caught and slaughtered with machetes imported from China by the notorious SPLM/A commanders in the aftermath of the split on 28th August 1991 in Eastern, Western and Central Equatoria region, including Bahr-el-Ghazel regions. For instance, Koul Mayang Juuk murdered many young Nuer troopers, including minors in Eastern Equatoria; Ping Deng Majok murdered the women of Pagu and burnt 1,500 Nuer children in boiled oil in Yaui. Cdr. Daniel Awet Akot and Maggar Aciek murdered more than 7,000 troopers under their commands in Bhar-el-Ghazel. Moreover, Maggar Aciek murdered alone another 15,000-60,000 innocent people of biracial backgrounds along the Dinka-Nuer border villages. Such killings were the tests and warnings of time and physical endurance of the Nuer nation and its people. We would never again permit this criminal act to occur in the Nuerland forever. It should be stated unequivocally loud and crystal that what happened in the past should be the first and the last forever. It should never again be repeated. Let’s there be no bones about. We appeal to all Southerners in the SPLA and the Nuer in particular not to absolutely die for Abyei. It is a plan to reduce your numbers. It does not worth a dime or penny to die for Abyei in the first place.
The SPLM leaders are corrupt administrators and had murdered hundreds of the best and the brightest in the movement. Presently, these power elites have mistrust of any southerners who do not subscribe to their wishes and political whims. In fact, it should also be reiterated that the Nuer started the armed struggle as Anya-Anya-2 (A-2) at post-Addis-Ababa Accord of 1972 that granted the South local autonomy within a united Socialist Sudan a decade before John Garang was sent to the bush as the prophet of doom by Abel Alier to hijack the Nuer’s power by uniting with the former Ethiopian Marxist-Leninist dictator Colonel Mengistu Hale Miriam. Because the Nuer are aggressiveness and courageous in spirit, the SPLM leadership is apprehensive, deeply concerned and worried about the fastest growing Nuer power in Sudan, North America, Australia and the European Union (EU) countries. The SPLM is apprehensive, concerns and does not know what to do about the fastest rising southern opposition against it. Southerners should say to the world Never Again for such crimes against humanity to re-occur in South Sudan. We [Nuer] have guts and gusto to defend ourselves from any danger, invasion and occupation and/or from any adversity. The southern domestic and foreign enemies should know well in advance what the Nuer nationality has the capacity, guts and gusto to destroy its adversaries. We would not be deterred or intimidated by Kiir’s Armageddon. Therefore, there is nothing to fear except fear itself. The main points of the Garang’s Secret Plan are as follows: - Firstly, to preserve the unity of Sudan. The SPLM/A in its Manifesto (1983) has been aiming at creating a “united, democratic and secular Sudan as opposed to the exercise of the right of “self-determination” or Southern national political independence. It is indeed relieving to know that the SPLM that was once a pro-unionist is now a pro-separatist. The SPLM/A shot the first bullets on what it termed as the “separatists” within and fought the Anya-Anya-II (A-2) on the Ethiopia border who espoused southern right of “self-determination”. Historically, the difficulty of determining what the SPLM/A was fighting for had been dubious, complex and difficult to diagnose because at one point it calls for a united Sudan on the one hand and an independent South on the other. It objective and political ideology have been inconsistent and that was the root causes of the split in 1991 up to the present. The split in the SPLM/A was pre-empted by three issues, vis-à-vis, lack of clear and coherent objective of the struggle, lack of democratization and the systematic human rights violations. These outstanding issues have not yet been reconciled or resolved even in the aftermath of the CPA.
As result, they have spread doubts, confusion and lack of sense of direction amongst southerners who are opposed to it because of its apparent opposition to the right of self-determination. Based on this confusion, the SPLM/A has a failed political ideology and political philosophy. This is the controversial concept of the so-called “New Sudan”. Overwhelmingly Sudanese folks stand up for unity of the country. These struggling visions culminated to the tragic split on 28th August 1991 between the “Torit” and “Nasir” factions respectively of the once indivisible and undemocratic Marxist-Leninist SPLM/A-Torit faction led by the late Dinka dictator John Garang and the pro-democratic-Nasir faction was headed Dr. Riak Machar Teny Dhurghon and Dr. Lam Akol. The split ushered a period of increasingly archaic and intense culture of violence that destroyed and disseminated scores of Dinka and Nuer communities in Central Upper Nile. In fact, preserving the unity of Sudan is a noble idea. Nevertheless, it was not the objective of the war. Salva Kiir and the pro-SPLM elders and statesmen such as Abel Alier, Isaiah Kulang, Professor Machar, Bona Malwal and their northern communists’ friends could not possibly superimpose domination and exploitation on the Nuer or any group for that matter. They know well the consequences of such a politico-military adventure. It had to be done throw the democratic process and the free will and consent of the people of Sudan and South Sudan in particular. Therefore, as far as the SPLM is concerned, the idea of the exercise of the right of self-determination in 2011 is secondary, a fallback contingency or position and the biggest political blunder of the century.
The SPLM fears that if the South separates, the Nuer would grasp power and they would be left in the cold. This is unrealistic idea but it is based on the old registered fear of the Nuer. The Nuer like any other human beings worldwide would not like to dominate, exploit and hurt anyone without a probable cause. They wanted to live free, die free and wish the same rights and spirit for others. They wanted to build a multicultural and egalitarian society that no one group would dominate another group against its free will and consent. Because the Nuer people are freed, they also wanted their neighbors to be freed. They have no interest to dominate and exploit anyone because their traditional egalitarian, democratic and federalist nature of the Nuer society, it would be impractical, if not impossible, to permit such a thing by superimposing its political socialization, political cultural values and its idiosyncrasies on anyone. It is a revered taboo among the Nuer that they should not superimpose their culture and way of life on others. They have assimilated and acculturated so many people from different ethnic nationalities in Sudan because of this openness and frankness on traditional democratic way of life. The Nuer nation is a nation of immigrants who become Nuer and treats each other with respect, including those around them as equal before God the Creator of all things and the law. They highly respected others taboos and cultural values. Today, even though they have assimilated and acculturated Dinka and other ethnic groups, they still maintain their cultures and folk ways of life although their culture and way of life has become that of the Nuer. Naturally, the Nuer nation and its people believe in democratic principles, social equality, fairness, social justice and respect for the basic fundamental freedoms and human rights protection for all God’s children. This believe was one of the premier raison d’etre that the Nuer resisted the Turko-Egyptian slave raiders and their intermediaries, including the resistance of the Anglo-Egyptian colonial rule for more than 30 years because they were against any form of domination domestic or foreign. The Nuer defeated the slave raiders, acculturated and assimilated them into the Nuer political culture. There is no doubt that the Nuer could definitely resist vigorously any form of domination and exploitation from any groups because it’s wrong for anyone to dominate and exploit another human beings against his/her free will and consent. The Nuer resisted colonialism because it was a system based on social injustice, immorality and exploitation of man by his fellow man or man is a wolf against his fellow man.
Based on the Nuer religious ethics and integrity, it is self-evident that all men are created equal (ci kwouth naadth cak a paar) and, thus, no individual person should take advantage of another human being anywhere in the world. The Nuer people believe that all men are born freed, created equal, lived free and died free. The Nuer people are not “separatists” in the first place as it is alleged by some of the pro-unionist SPLM power elites. Let’s assume that all Southerners should vote for unity of Sudan, well and good, they have made their free choice and the Nuer being part of that whole would be the first to support and respect it. Thus, the allegations being uttered around by the anti-Nuer and anti-independence forces that the Nuer and the Equatorians are “separatists” are unreal, lack credence and could not be substantiated. Surely, southerners waged the armed struggle for over 40 years for the right of self-determination or independence. Professor Wani Tombi writes, “The 1983-2005 are fallen heroes and heroines freedom torch bearers, which torch was lit and born by the historical heroes and heroines from 1955-1972; and from1972 to 1983. This has been a continuous process of freedom and liberation torch bearing by all southern Sudanese, their tribal and ethnic characteristics notwithstanding.” The South first group within the SPLM has legal and constitutional rights to articulate their political, philosophical, sociological and legal frame of reference (worldview). It is surely a real reflection of the SPLM power elite inculcated natural fear of the Nuer nationality (Nuerophobia). The South, per se, belongs to all southern Sudanese and there is no reason at all to fear anyone who is truly a southerner, brother and sister. We should cooperate to preserve its integrity and its future. We all belong to the South with no exception and it belongs to all of us who dwell from within and without. It is the basis of our historic national unity, comradeship, brotherhood, sisterhood and the way forward. We are all southerners who should identify themselves as Sudanese first rather than on the basis of tribal or ethnic and religious affiliations.
Secondly, the secret plan was to specifically marginalize the Nuer people in all key administrative strategic positions. In fact, any marginalization of any groups from any key administrative positions would tantamount to the declaration of war. The plan is to promote only “yes-men” Nuer or those who could implement the SPLM dirty policies against their own kin and kith for pieces of silvers. For instance, John Luke, Kuon Pouch, James Kuok Raui, Taban Deang Gai (alias Mohammed Hassan), Gathoth Mai, Thomas Douth Guet, Gabriel Yoal Dok and others are atypical Nuer wanted by Salva Kiir to suppress their fellow Nuer nationalists. For instance, Thomas Douth Guet is paid off to get rid of Professor David de Chand, an academic and a former Ambassador and Dr. Riak Machar, the VP of the GOSS in the same way that he got rid of his in-law the late Professor Paul Andy Othow and Major-General Kiribino Kuanyin Bol and many others arrested and murdered in cold blood by the SPLM/A in the past. These individuals claimed to have SPLM roots- the Garang’s boys or the Garang’s orphans- could kill in cold blood and/or bribed to do the dirty work against the Nuer for the interest of the SPLM power elites. The Nuer have already identified and isolated such individuals and ostracized them from the Nuer community. The roots they have implanted would also be eradicated within the Nuer community inside South Sudan and abroad. The recent SPLM Second National Conference held in Juba ultimately identified the good, the bad and the ugly Nuer blood-suckers, reactionaries and non-visionaries. The above mentioned individuals have also implanted bad seeds and roots within the community bad pig trees from un-cleansed fruits that have to be eradicated and weeded out before they could poison the good fruit trees. It is always said that a routine onion could spoil the rest of the bag. Actually, the presence of these bad fruits within the Nuer community is like a bag of a mad man that he carries along with and puts in the good, the bad and the ugly in the bag at all times. Therefore, it is better to be saved than to be sorry at the end of the day. We should also work to identify and isolate the root stumps of the parasites that had been impregnated and cultured by the bad guys to mushroom within the community. They must and ought to be up rooted from the community. They have brought shame to the Nuer nation and its people for the sake of pieces of silvers. Nuer people have not been blood suckers, traitors and betrayers. They could not be bought cheaply like idiots and lackeys.
Paradoxically, they should be counseled to be reformed and to rededicate themselves to serve the Nuer nation and its people. Although they are bad apples, we still needed them and deserved to be pardoned for the sake of the Nuer unity as a top priority. They should be done no harm nor treated like people inflicted with leprosy but as men/women who went strayed and needed to be redirected to the right path of doing the right things, follow the ethics and integrity, societal norms and old traditions of the Nuer community values, egalitarianism and democratic way of life as well as respect of the kinship sanctity. They have become political lackeys, dialectic materialists and traitors of their own kin and kith. They should not be entrusted with any leadership positions and responsibility within the Nuer community because they are not sanguine to become bread winners for the community. They should live and let live with the wrath or the curse of the Nuer should be passed on to their children and their children’s children. They are the Judases of the Nuer because their actions characterized Judas Iscariot who betrayed Christ with 30 pieces of sliver. The time has come for the Nuer community to cleanse itself from such demagogic low spirited, thugs, hooligans and hoodlums. Historically, the Nuer nation had been on the lead and its people have not been predestined to become followers but leaders of men/women. The Nuer is leaders of men and women and nation of nations. To show how they are corrupting the Nuer community, Thomas Douth Guet during one of his visits to the USA was ready to bribe me with a million plus dollar if I were to agree joining the SPLM. It could have been my death wish and defaming of my personality if I had a low class and a mediocre or weak spirit and accepted the bribe. As a Christian and a believer with ethical and integrity and an aristocrat (diel ram mi ram), I declined the offer. It was not good for me personally and my family as well. I have the ability and the capacity to earn a million dollar in America or anywhere in the world. I am committed to justice and not corruption. I am a born democrat, hardworking middle class family man and honest in myself to do the right thing. Most importantly, I am well educated and a thinker, I could make as much money as I wanted in this world. Intellectually, money is not everything or top priority in the world. Of course, we have to have it to solve our problems with money but it should not be a top priority in life. I have promised myself to serve God, my community and humanity and God Almighty will provide the means that I do need to accomplish His mission for mankind. Thus, Thomas Dueth Guet- a senior SPLM security personnel-actions as above mentioned were contrary to the liberation struggle and indicative that the SPLM goes around luring or buying off its enemies with money and murdered them at the end of the day. This is a Stalinist style in the former Soviet Union. This is what is now going on in Salva Kiir’s administration in Juba. These ideas or concepts of “Kiirology”, “Kiirnomics” and “Kiirocracy” are all regressive ideals for the future of the South. They have been formulated by the prophets of doom and destruction. As a democrat, we will in the South because we would like to build a system with a human face and human development.
Thirdly, the secret plan was to prematurely retire and demote a large number of Nuer officer corps in the SPLA. This was one of the Dim-Yac-Kiir prima facie Secret Plan designed and engineered in the tiny and poorest Warap State prior to the plane crashed on Friday, 2nd May 2008. It was decided that most of the Nuer senior officers were to be retired and demoted in order to give way to SPLA-Dinka officers with less war and combat experience and training to replace them. The Dim-Yac-Kiir Plan targeted officers who have been stationed in Awenyabol, Malau, Pariak and Ramchiel. Moreover, the trio (Dim, Yac and Kiir) have dubiously concluded that most of the officers be sent to Officers Candidate School (OCS) as an alternative way of dismissing them. Most of these officers are highly trained and ranked top notch commanders in the SPLA who have commanded and had war and combat experiences. The late Garang could not have even uttered or imagined or dared to retire this high quality, motivated and spirited officers to be dismissed from the SPLA because he knew their capabilities and ferocity as fighters. The Nuer fights like Gurkha of Nepal in the British Army, the Germans, the Japanese and the Vietnamese because they have no word for surrendering to the enemy without a good fight. It is honorable for a Nuer soldier to commit suicide then to surrender because of fear of humiliation as a Prisoner of War (POW). According to the Nuer traditions, man must and ought to die like a man with honor, dignity and service to the Nuer nation and the community.
Fourth, they further demanded that special bodyguards of Dr. Riak Machar and Lt.-General Paulino Matip Nhial in Juba town be withdrawn and redeployed into different units. The Nuer leaders vigorously resisted such a cantankerous move until it was unilaterally withdrawn by Kiir himself at almost zero-hour and when things got tougher for him in Juba town. In other words, the implementation of such a Secret Plan could have been swift and immediate but it died and gone with the wind with its architects, unfortunately. The ultimate plan was to arrest and murder Dr. Riak Machar and Paulino Matip in cold blood. This could have produced serious consequences for the South as a whole. The Nuer community would never ever allow its leaders to be humiliated and murdered in cold blood similar to the murder of the charismatic Colonel Samuel Gai Tut, the most able Colonel William Abdullah Chuol Deng, Lt.-General Elijah Hon Top and Lt.-General William Nyoun Bany and others not illustrated herein. In a nutshell, the SPLM power elites overall strategic plan is to grasp power and controls it in favor of Bahr-el-Ghazel. It would be up to the southern readers to read between the lines. This plan could have been too costly, dangerous and the South could definitely be in an inferno, disintegrated and goes into oblivion under such unprecedented non-strategic political ideology and warring visions for forever. We could possibly have another Somalia in the region. Any further attempt by Slava Kiir and his gangsters or the “Gorgial Mafioso” could yield serious precedence. The Dim-Yac-Kiir Plan is the continuity of the late John Garang Secret Plan prior to signing of the Navivasha Agreement in 2005 to marginalize the non-pro-SPLM nationalities with specificity on the Nuer that the SPLM elite fears most like blue heron (the bird of wrath/war/death), African black mamba, African king’s copra deadly snakes, the wild African bees and the black scorpions. Recently, Salva Kiir rededicated himself to the previous articles and provisos of the late Garang secret plan. It was one of the reasons that Salva Kiir said, that the “forces of unity shall defeat the forces of separation.” The referendum will tell us who is right and who is wrong in AD 2011. Let’s the people’s vote and give their verdict.
Fifth, the secret plan was to support financially and logistically only the pro-SPLM merchants and business men/women at the expense of others. This’ one of the general failures of the SPLM leadership and the “core” and the “crux” of corruption, lack of democratization, good governance, socioeconomic and human development in post-war South that every SPLM power elites from Salva Kiir to the common man is involved nowadays. For instance, many SPLM power elites have purchased luxurious villas abroad with cash. Where do they get money to purchase such grandeur luxurious villas? Even in the US the world’s number one richest country, no person could possibly purchase a home with cash on delivery (COD). The law and mortgage companies required the homeowners to pay an x amount of dollars as down payment and the rest would be structured for 15-30 year period. Slava Kiir himself has bought a big home in Adeline, Australia, for the sum amount of $500,000 or more and remitted to his children in Australia the sum amount of more than $3.5m in cash. Other SPLM/A leaders have purchased homes in North America with the donated public money for post-war development funds. Succinctly, there is no development throughout South Sudan for the past three years. Corruption within the SPLM has become an accepted institution and the practice of the day rather than an exception. The fate of millions of dollars received from oil revenue remains unaccounted for and not yet to be made public. The GOSS is a serious joke and hub of corrupt practices. Finally, rampant mass corruption is a zero-sum game or the rule of the game in South Sudan. It is a big shame and total failure of the hard won people’s struggle for social justice, freedom, liberty and equality. Most importantly, it has given the North the right to continue arguing that southerners are incompetent to govern themselves and/or Sudan.
Sixth, the secret plan urges for poisoning and murdering of Nuer intellectuals. For instance, every Dinka-SPLM doctor has been instructed to have no mercy on any Nuer or non-Dinka patients. This is another form of genocide. Since there seems to be equal number of Nuer-SPLM doctors in the country, there would be no need at all for any Nuer patients to visit a Dinka-SPLM doctor. They should be boycotted. However, under such circumstances when a Nuer or any non-SPLM patient passes through SPLM’s doctor in a hospital/clinic and dies, there should be no alternative but the Medical Board should immediately suspends and/or revoke his/her Medical License and should not be allowed to practice the art of medicine anywhere in Sudan and South Sudan in particular. The Ministry of Health and Human Services (MHHS) should be strict on this rule. Furthermore, such a doctor should be charged for man’s slaughter because such practices contradicts ethics and integrity in the art of medicine and the doctor’s patient relations. Supposedly that a Nuer doctor or any other doctor performs this act, they should also be suspended from practicing the noble art of medicine anywhere in Sudan. Mostly importantly, killing of patients by any medical doctor is unethical, unlawful, crimes against humanity and tantamount to a serious violation of the “Apocalyptic Oath” that the duty of medicine is to treat and not to kill but God cures. The doctor and any doctors for that matter should treat all patients equally and let God the Creator blesses and cures them. Even in wartime, doctors are not expected to discriminate or deny medical treatment to captured and wounded enemy soldiers/combatants. Any doctors who discriminate patients on the basis of tribal, ethnic, racial and religious background as well as personal hatred do not deserve to be trained in any medical school that receives public funds and government grants.
Seventh, the secret plan was to send most of the “unconfirmed” and /or “No Units” SPLA soldiers to fight in Abyei. In fact, there is the Abyei Protocol and the Abyei Border Commission (ABC) Report in place to deal appropriately with Abyei issue. Southerners should not die because of Abyei. It was not the purpose of waging the armed struggle. Abyei by all legal, political and historical developments had been part of the North for more than 108 years. Those who bring up the Abyei issue are the opportunists and many of Abyei’s people as such do want to change the course chartered by their forefathers’ generations ago. Therefore, Abyei is not and would not become the “New Kashmir between the North and South as alleged by Roger Winter, Special Advisor or the “Viceroy” to the Government of Southern Sudan. Those individuals seeking Abyei to rejoin the South should wait until the referendum takes place in 2011.
THE ABYEI CONFLICT
Currently, the partners to the Abyei Protocol have a every opportunity to resolve their differences through peaceful means as follows: - First, the partners should recall the drafter and the conceptualizer of the Abyei Protocol former US Senator and Special Envoy to Sudan John Danforth to revisit the text of the protocol. There are flaws that have to be revisited for political, historical and legal clarifications. Historically, the Abyei area does not belong only to the nine (9) Ngok Dinka chiefdoms. The protocol fails to illustrate this important point. It would be inconclusive statement to assert that Abyei, per se, belongs only to the nine Ngok Dinka chiefdoms. Article 1.1.2 of the Principles of Agreement on Abyei stipulates that “The territory is defined as the area of the nine Ngok Dinka chiefdoms transferred to Southern Kordufan in 1905;”There is no evidence to ascertain that this claim is authentic. It is one of the major flaws in the Abyei Protocol. The Misseriya and other nomads are also rightful permanent residents of the area as well. Who could prove that the Misseriya and others are not permanent residents and citizens of Abyei? Both the Ngok Dinka, the Misseriya nomads and others are all immigrants in the area in question and should have equal rights. For instance, the Ngok Dinka migrated from Fangak to Bentiu and then to Bahr-el-Ghazel until they cross River Na’am and interacted with the Misseriya nomads who had been the permanent residents of the area for hundreds of years. The Principles of the Agreement on Abyei in Article 1.1.2 states that “The territory is defined as the area of the nine Ngok Dinka chiefdoms transferred to Kordufan in 1905.” Who transferred this territory to Kordufan? Where are the documentations for the said transfer? Was it under duress or by mutual consent of the Ngok Dinka traditional leaders? What were the ontological reasons for the transfer of Abyei to Southern Kordufan? Where were the Misseriya? Were there no people in Abyei or was it a “no man’s land” prior to the arrival of the Ngok Dinka (Padang) from Fangak and Bentiu in Greater Upper Nile in the late 1900s? What were the circumstances that led to the transferred of Abyei to Kordufan? These political, sociological, philosophical, legal and historical enquires should be revisited to seek solutions and to clear up these serious flaws that exist in the said protocol otherwise the partners are part of the problem rather than the solution.
From the legal, political, sociological and historical interpretations, there are flaws in the Abyei Protocol. It is imperative that the partners should rededicate themselves to find a just, peaceful and durable conflict solution to the Abyei conflict. It should not be the probable cause to return to war nor imposing new sanctions by the international community that did not work for the past decade. Article 1.1.3 of the said Principles of Agreement on Abyei stipulates that “The Misseriya and other nomadic people retain their traditional rights to graze cattle and move across the territory of Abyei.” What does the phrase “retain their traditional rights to graze cattle and move across the territory of Abyei means?” Who represented the Misseriya’s interest and rights during the drafting of the protocol deliberations? Why did VP Ali Al-Taha the representative of the GOS accept the Abyei Protocol without first undertaking legal, political and historical cross examination? Was Al-Taha under duress from the Americans? Was the Abyei Protocol part of the so-called Garang’s secret plan in Navivasha? Based on the interpretation of the said phrases, it would appear that the Misseriya were from the beginning part of Abyei prior to the arrival of the nine chiefdoms of the Ngok Dinka immigrants from Upper Nile Province in the 1900s. Additionally, it would, therefore, appear that no legal, political and historical interpretations and evidence to indicate or dispute that the Misseriya were not the original inhabitants of Abyei since they have been grazing cattle prior to the appearance of the Ngok Dinka migrants to the territory of Abyei from Upper Nile region in the 19th century..
Secondly, the partners needed to invoke a “neutral” arbitrator, mediator and/or to return to IGAD mediators for peaceful conflict resolution as well as for clarifications of the flaws in the protocol. The court of law would be the best recourse to arbitrate the Abyei issue. Alternatively, they could refer the matter without any quid-pro-quo to the US Senator John Danforth that drafted the text of the said protocol for further modifications thus granting both the Ngok Dinka and Misseriya equal rights, power and resources (wealth) sharing in the territory of Abyei. The most crucial issue that is now facing the inhabitants of Abyei-referring hereinafter- the Ngok Dinka and the Misseriya and others- would be how to devise a formula for power and resources (wealth) sharing. Another flaw of the protocol clearly stated in Article 1.2.1 that “residents of Abyei should have dual citizens of Southern Kordufan and Bahr-el-Ghazel respectively with representation in the legislatures of both states”. This is a big flaw that should not have been accepted on faith value by the Government of Sudan (GOS) representatives or delegation to have disputed and rejected the concept of dual citizenship in the first place. The idea of dual citizenship was a flaw that the GOS delegation should have tossed out and should not have been politically and legally appropriate for the GOS to have disputed this concept of duality of citizenship because Abyei has been part of Southern Kordufan for more 108 years. What are the criteria that give the inhabitants such a duality of citizenship? The issue of duality makes it more complex to handle the Abyei issue. Article 1.2.2 states that Abyei will be administered by a local Executive Council, elected by the residents of Abyei. Pending the election of the Executive Council, it members will be appointed by the Presidency”.
Thirdly, the SPLM meddled, breached and surely acted inappropriately on the Abyei Protocol by having unilaterally appointed without any mandate Edward Lino as the Chief Administrator prior to any democratic elections in the area of Abyei as stipulated in the said or preceded protocol. From all political, sociological, philosophical and legal analytical reasoning and reasonableness, the appointment of Edward Lino as the Chief Administrator of Abyei was ultra virus or outside of jurisdiction. In short, the matter should have been referred to the Presidency for further discussion and consideration on the issue in question. Therefore, any unilateral decision undertaken by either party in Abyei was a breach the protocol itself, created mistrust between the partners (NCP/SPLM) and induced lack or the absence thereof of confidence building measures between the partners to resolve amicably the Abyei issue. Nevertheless, the fact of the matter was that even there has been no administration in Abyei for the past three years; the issue still remains in the Presidency. This is the bottom line. Article 2.1 on Administrative Structure states that “Upon signing of the Agreement, Abyei should be accorded special administrative status under the institution of the Presidency.” Based on the above, the SPLM had no politico-legal right to appoint the Chief Administrator on its own accord without first informing the other partner. The SPLM leadership, surely, breached the law for having appointed unilaterally an administrator when the matter remains in principles in the institution and the jurisdiction of the Presidency. The SPLM leadership should have waited for as long as it takes until the general elections were held in Abyei by the residents of the area in question or upon the failure of the Presidency to appoint members of the local Executive Council. In this case, then, we could assume neither party had applied legal nor democratic standards as required by law clearly stipulated and cited in this controversial Abyei Protocol. Most importantly, the international experts report was partisan, partial, bias and/or prejudice against the Government of Sudan. The Government of Sudan as the sovereign entity has every legal and political right to protect the national interest of Sudan and its people. In essence, the experts report was in favor of the SPLM rather than GOS, the marginalized Misseriya nomads and other ethnicities living and grazing in the territory of Abyei for generations.
Fourthly, another flaw in the protocol is that the term “residents” have not been defined because if we referred to Article 1.2.1, it qualifies the citizens of Abyei to have dual citizenship of the Bahr-el-Ghazel and Southern Kordufan. This flaw needs also to be clarified and rectified legally, politically and historically. In fact, should it be concluded that both the Misseriya and the nine Ngok Dinka chiefdoms are all immigrants and have equal rights to co-exist in the territory of Abyei or the tribal homeland of both Ngok Dinka and Misseriya inhabitants such a decision would be appropriate. It is against Sudanese laws and the constitution to deny any Sudanese citizens born or naturalized residing within the land regardless of being Misseriya, Dinka, Nuer or not the right of citizenship on the basis of residency. Henceforth, they all deserved to share power and wealth in Abyei. Another question that needs to be probed is what is the total population of the Ngok Dinka, the Misseriya and others in the territory? Statistically, the Misseriya population could be probably greater or constitutes the majority compared to the nine Ngok Dinka chiefdoms. These concerns should also require a special census on the populations to determine the basis of such claims that Abyei belongs to the nine Ngok Dinka chiefdoms excluding the Misseriya or vice versa. It is the contention of this work to argue further that census of the populations in Abyei should be undertaken for proper power and resources (wealth) sharing in the area.
Fifth, should the partners-referring hereinafter- the GOS/SPLM- failed to resolve the Abyei issue amicably and peacefully, they should refer the case to the International Court of Justice (ICJ) for mediation and arbitration or they should return to war, which is the most costly in terms of human lives and money. The return to war option is surely, un-welcomed episode by all the parties to the conflict. Now, the hostilities have resumed in Abyei between the two partners, who is going to intercede and negotiate between the two partners? The war in Abyei could jeopardize the CPA. We urge and appeal to all southerners to no war in Abyei. It does not worth dying at all. We should feel sorry for those who have died an unnecessary death in Abyei in the last few weeks and the displacement of so many innocent people reported by the UN sources to be in the neighborhood of 50,000 plus. Suffering, pains and mental anguish of these innocent people should be blamed on the SPLM feeble minded and moron leadership and wrong decision-making in Juba that does not want peace but war. They have become the dogs of war in Africa and South Sudan in particular.
In summation, both the Ngok Dinka and the Miserriya are co-inhabitants of Abyei and should share power and resources (wealth) in the area. The Misseriya people have been marginalized, underrepresented, betrayed sole out as part of the CPA collective bargaining “New Deal” paradigm between the late Garang and Vice President Ali Taha. The Government of Sudan (GOS) should not have accepted the Abyei Protocol on faith value. It should have been reviewed by academics, legal, political scientists, historians, sociologists, geographers and government experts, thinkers and the neo-thinkers for durable or permanent conflict solution. Both the Misseriya and the nine Ngok Dinka chiefdoms should share power, resources and to co-exist as equal inhabitants of the territory. From both logical, political and analytical reasoning and reasonableness, the GOS representatives were dubbed to accept not only the Abyei Protocol but the entire CPA without any revisions and adequate analysis because any refusal could have tantamount to the US gunboat diplomacy on either side by the international peace sponsors. Succinctly, both the SPLM led by John Garang and the GOS delegation led by Ali Osman Mohammed Taha were either incompetent negotiators or were under duress of the international peace sponsors who did everything humanly possible to affect the policy of regime change in Sudan. This was the whole motive behind pushing the CPA to be inherently signed by both parties. How come a smart lawyer and statesman such as Ali Taha could allow himself to be dubbed in the first place? It needs further investigation. There is a need for re-visitation of the Abyei Protocol by the partners to search for just and durable solution to the Abyei conflict. The Abyei issue is extra-territorial from the main North-South conflict. It would require some flexibility on the part of the Ngok Dinka to accept the Misseriya and other inhabitants to have equal rights and permanent residency in Abyei. They both have lived together for the past 108 years; therefore, there should be room for compromise for the betterment of all parties concerned in Abyei territory. Eviction of Misseriya or denying them their legitimate rights to Abyei would tantamount to serious violations of their basic fundamental human rights as Sudanese and people of the Abyei territory. It would surely be a disservice to the peace, tranquility, political stability, development, love and brotherhood/sisterhood in the area in question. Finally, the SPLM needs to be flexible, reasonable and logical in making national public policy decision-making. The ABC Report is neither the Holy Qur’an nor the Holy Bible. It is just a document written by human beings with biases and prejudices. Hence, it is not absolute, perfect and binding. It is relative because all decision-making and agreements are not absolute but relative. Even the Alfred Einstein theory on “thermodynamic” is not absolute but relative. This work, of course, is not absolute but subjective to further critiques, constructive criticism, and logical analytical analysis evaluation. Nevertheless, the ideas jotted hereinafter would not change at all for posterity. The will always remained to be the intellectual property of the author for everlasting and world without ends.
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