Assessment on dropout and repetition in basic education
in Rwanda


The purpose of this consultancy is design and conduct a study to understand the patterns and causes of school dropout and repetition in Rwandan basic education to support the National Children’s Commission (NCC) and the Ministry of Education (MINEDUC) to better understand the factors leading to dropout and repetition to allow them to improve policy and programmes.

Expected fee

To be based on financial proposal submitted by consulting firm




6 months

Start Date

15 September 2015

Reporting to

UNICEF, Chief of Education; and a national technical team comprised of NCC, MINEDUC and other stakeholders

Budget Code/PBA No


Project and activity codes




The National Commission for Children (NCC) was created by the Government of Rwanda in 2011 to oversee, coordinate, and monitor the implementation of the Integrated Child Rights Policy (ICRP) and its Strategic Plan. NCC has a national mandate to ensure that rights of all children are preserved and promoted throughout the country. This is to be achieved through the coordination of the seven key programs outlined in the Integrated Child Rights Policy (ICRP): identity and nationality; family and alternative care; survival, health and standards of living; education; protection; justice and child participation.


The Government of Rwanda guarantees by law that every child in Rwanda has the right to fee-free and compulsory education for the first 9 Years of basic education. Data from MINEDUC reveal that the net enrollment data increased in primary from 95.4% in 2010 to 96.8% in 2014 and from 22.6% to 35.7% in secondary in the same time period. Even if the enrollment is high in primary education the available data from the Ministry of Education indicate that there is still a high dropout rate from primary schools. In 2014, the primary school dropout was 14.3%, which is an increase from 2010 when it was 11.4%. In 2013, the dropout rate was 14.7% in lower secondary and 6.2% in upper secondary school; both rates represent an increase from 2010 which stood at 7.4% overall dropout (Source: MINEDUC; Education Statistics Year Book, 2011). The 4th Population and Housing Census, (2012RPHC4) also revealed that only 64% of children with disabilities are currently attending school, 27% of them have never attended school while 9% have left school prematurely.


It is in this regard that NCC and MINEDUC, in ensuring the availability of relevant information on the situation of the rights of the child, proposes to conduct the assessment on the barriers to basic education in Rwanda specifically focusing on dropout and repetition given the Rwandan policy on free education for all up to 12 years basic education.


The purpose of the consultancy is to produce a report providing a comprehensive analysis of drop out and repetition in Rwanda that will guide the development of a national strategy for improving school retention. This proposed study aims to help NCC and MINEDUC to better understand the patterns and causes of dropout and school repetition in Rwanda. Education statistics show that, despite overall high enrolment rates in primary school, repetition and dropout rates are increasing in both primary and secondary school, and that primary school completion rates are decreasing. The evidence generated by this study will be used as a basis for developing a national strategy to improving school retention. The objectives of the study are as follows:


    1. General objective
      Develop evidence based recommendations to support and improve retention and completion in all public and government-aided primary and secondary schools in Rwanda  


    1. Specific objectives

  • To identify age and grade specific drop-out rates, disaggregatable by gender, location, socio-economic status and by district. The study should focus on drop-out within, and between schooling cycles (i.e. transition from primary to lower secondary, and from lower secondary to upper).

  • To assess the causes of dropout and repetition in basic education, focusing on push, pull and contextual factors which influence the process of repetition and drop out by age, gender, location, socio-economic status and district


The assessment on causes of drop-out and repetition rate will consider the period of five years from 2009 to 2013. It will also cover all public and government-aided primary and secondary schools based on a nationally representative sample.



  1. Inception report presenting a clear and detailed methodology, tools for data collection and analysis, work plan and roadmap, as well as a draft stakeholder engagement plan to support policy dialogue and implementation of recommendations resulting from the assessment. The inception report will be reviewed by the technical team consisting of government representatives, UNICEF and other stakeholders, and refined based on their inputs. The final methodology will be approved by the technical team before the start of the research. The methodology should take into account the considerations below.


  1. Review of existing literature and quantitative and qualitative data. The consulting firm will review and analyse existing data and reports on school dropout and repetition in Rwanda and prepare a desk review highlighting key trends in quantitative data, summarizing related literature using determinant framework. This desk review will inform the development of a survey questionnaire.

  2. Summary of key survey findings. A nationally representative survey will be conducted to investigate the factors contributing to dropout and repetition. The consulting firm will prepare an intermediate report of the key survey findings and the corresponding recommendations for undertaking additional qualitative work, e.g. focus groups.


  1. First draft report. After conducting the research, the consulting firm will analyze data and submit a first draft report to the technical team for review and comment. The first draft report should include findings from the desk review, the nationally representative survey and the qualitative work and focus groups.


  1. Final report, summary report and PPT presentation. The consulting firm will incorporate comments from the technical team, as requested. The draft will be considered final when approved by MINEDUC Senior Management. The consulting firm will also prepare an executive summary of the final report, which should target a non-technical audience, and a PPT presentation on the key findings and recommendations of the report.


  1. Monthly progress reports. The consulting firm willprepare and submit progress reports at the end of each month of the consultancy to update the technical team on the status of the work and raise any key questions or issues.




Technical proposals should include a proposed methodology for the study. In developing their technical proposals, consulting firms should consider the following:


  • The methodology should be nationally representative but with sufficient power for the relevant sub-group analysis. The survey sample will be established in cooperation with a team made up of MINEDUC, REB and NISR colleagues, who expertise in this area.  


  • The methodology should draw on existing quantitative and qualitative data on dropouts and repetition.

  • The methodology should focus on gathering qualitative information on the factors leading to dropout and repetition. Methodology should include and build on the review and consideration of existing quantitative data on dropouts to establish framework for qualitative research. The methodology should take into consideration and address(if relevant) the following potential factors linked to  dropout and repetition trends:

    • Variations by district, gender and age group and should take into account these different child level factors.

    • Disability, health status, poverty, migration, economic activity of children as well as protection dimension of the status and well-being of children (e.g. children in institutions, safe family environment).

    • Factors linked to existence of supportive environment throughout the life-cycle (e.g. household/family environment supporting enrollment and retention where applicable; teaching and learning methodology; safety and supportiveness of school environment and practices; access to and health status; attendance of ECE services, among others) will also be taken into consideration in establishing the methodology.

  • The research and data collection teams will be composed of international and national researchers and will aim at including national research institution if applicable.



For all contractual issues, the consulting firm will report to UNICEF. For technical issues, the consulting firm will work directly with the technical team, led by NCC and MINEDUC. All deliverables must be approved by MINEDUC and UNICEF in order to be considered final. Given the study is to be nationally representative, necessary approvals may need to be obtained from NISR, as well other relevant bodies responsible for approving the national surveys implemented in Rwanda, as necessary.


The following modalities will be followed during the contract:


  • Technical team will be established between NCC, MINEDUC, NISR if required, and UNICEF and  will support the overall study

  • Consultation meetings to be held regularly between technical team and consultancy firm, either in person or remotely

  • Establish a work plan, roadmap and costing related to the assignment;

  • Technical team will follow up all activities as planned for the smooth and efficient running of the assignment


The consultancy firm will require regular presence in Rwanda as agreed in the technical proposal and as required by the methodology.




The payment schedule should be based on delivery of quality final products. The timeframe should be presented in the technical proposal and the payment schedule in the financial proposal. Payments will be made only based on the quality completion of deliverables, as approved by MINEDUC.


UNICEF reserves the right to withhold all or a portion of payment if performance is unsatisfactory, if work/outputs is incomplete, not delivered or for failure to meet deadlines.


The products and deliverables of this consultancy are not the property of the consultancy firm. No deliverables may be shared or published without written permission from MINEDUC/UNICEF. MINEDUC/UNICEF will be free to adapt and modify them.




  • The consulting company must provide details of qualification and a work profile of the principal consultant and other research team members who should meet the following required minimum conditions:

    • Have a minimum of MA/MSc level in Education, Social Sciences, Public Policy Analysis or other relevant fields related to Education. Experience of at least 5 years of work in the consultation domain;

    • Have proven experience in the use of participatory, qualitative and quantitative assessment/analytic methodologies;

    • Evidence/proof of past experience in a similar field;

    • Strong communication (written and oral) and networking skills;

    • Have proven competencies in research, facilitation skills, good communication, excellent English language and writing skills.

    • Knowledge of Education and child protection issues in Rwanda will be an advantage.




The consultancy firm is expected to use his or her own equipment, including computers. UNICEF premises will be available for the meetings and collecting inputs from other partners.


The consultancy firm shall not make use of any unpublished or confidential information, made known to him in the course of performing his duties under the terms of this agreement, without written authorization from MINEDUC/NCC/UNICEF. The products of this consultancy are not the property of the consulting firm and cannot be shared without the permission of MINEDUC/NCC/UNICEF. The consultancy firm shall respect the habits and customs of the local population and abstain from interfering in the country's political affairs. Law no 31/2007 on intellectual property right will be applicable where necessary.


The consulting firm shall abide by and be governed by UNICEF Procedure on Ethical Standards in Research, Evaluation and Data Collection and Analysis, as well as national regulation on ethical research, in designing and implementing the study.  


Policy both parties should be aware of:

  • Under the consultancy agreements, a month is defined as 21 working days, and fees are prorated accordingly.  Consultants are not paid for weekends or public holidays.

  • Consultants are not entitled to payment of overtime.  All remuneration must be within the contract agreement.

  • No contract may commence unless the contract is signed by both UNICEF and the consultant or Contractor.

  • For international consultants outside the duty station, signed contracts must be sent by fax or email.  Signed contract copy or written agreement must be received by the office before Travel Authorisation is issued.

  • No consultant may travel without a signed travel authorisation prior to the commencement of the journey to the duty station.

  • Unless authorised, UNICEF will buy the tickets of the consultant.  In exceptional cases, the consultant may be authorised to buy their travel tickets and shall be reimbursed at the “most economical and direct route” but this must be agreed to beforehand.

  • Consultants will not have supervisory responsibilities or authority on UNICEF budget.

  • Consultant will be required to sign the Health statement for consultants/Individual contractor prior to taking up the assignment, and to document that they have appropriate health insurance, including Medical Evacuation.

  • The Form 'Designation, change or revocation of beneficiary' must be completed by the consultant upon arrival, at the HR Section.




Interested consulting firms are requested to submit:


  1. A technical proposal, describing clear and detailed methodology, tools for data collection and analysis, work plan and roadmap

  2. Up to date portfolio of the consulting firm and CVs of all consultants who will work on the project

  3. A detailed financial proposal in the following format:


Cost (USD) and RWF

Research Design


Data collection (specify whether quantitative and/or qualitative)




Stakeholders Workshop


Professional Fees


Travel and accommodation


Other relevant expenses


The technical and financial proposal should be submitted separately.


Technical proposals and financial proposals should be submitted separately to This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.no later than 8 September 2015. In the subject line of the email, please write: Study on Dropout and repetition in Rwanda.


Evaluation of proposals


Once the deadline for presentation for proposals has concluded, the proposals will by UNICEF and the technical team to determine the most suitable candidates. Financial proposals will be reviewed for only those proposals that meet the technical qualifications.


Technical and financial evaluation of proposals will be done with the following scores:


Evaluation                     Maximum Score

Technical proposal                70 points

Financial Proposal                30 points


Total score of the proposal to be evaluated will be obtained according to the following formula:

Overall score= average technical score by panel + financial score  


Applications will be reviewed by UNICEF and the technical team to determine the most suitable candidates.

Prepared by: Erin Tanner, Education Chief (OIC)               


Signature: _________________   

Date: _____/____/____


Reviewed by: Solrun Engilbertsdottir, SPR Chief (OIC)

Signature: _________________   

Date: _____/____/____

Approved by: Oliver Petrovic, Deputy Representative


Signature: _________________   

Date: _____/____/____

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