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•Sudan measures approximately 2.5 million sq km with Southern Sudan covering an area of about 648,052 sq km
•Upper Nile state which forms one of the 10 states of Southern Sudan has an estimated rural population of some 57 158 households forming a transition zone between huge mechanized farming zones and the traditional subsistence farming of the remaining states in the south
• Based on climate, soil type, vegetation, general characteristics of the local economy and other factors, Upper Nile state together with Jonglei form part of the environmental and ecological zones of Southern Sudan
Climate & topographyRainfall & temperature
• Upper Nile State receives between 700 to 1,300 mm of rainfall annually.
• Temperatures are typically above 25C and can rise above 35C
• December to April is a period of almost total drought with temperature reaching 45C
Land use and livelihood
• Although traditional livelihood systems rely on cattle rearing, crop production, fishing, wild food collection and trade, cattle rearing or pastoralism
• Cattle provide the fundamental basis for wealth and status, forming the foundation for social networks, a store of wealth, and a critical source of milk and meat
• Rainfall is extremely variable
• Influences of rain fed grazing grasses availability
• communities prefer to live on livestock products alone, major threats such as loss of livestock to diseases, and reduction of cattle numbers caused by excessive flooding
• A mixed economy therefore becomes essential.
• Upper Nile like the rest of Southern Sudan is rich in bio-diversity and this is due to the ecological zone it lies in.
• Portion of sudd region---important breeding area for Nile ecosystem fish species
• Estimates state that the Sudd could provide 100,000 to 300,000 tons annually on a sustained basis, with the biggest portion coming from Upper Nile
• There are a number of species found in Upper Nile some of which are endemic to the region e.g. the Nile Lechwe
• Among other species found which are threatened are the Hippopotamus, sitatunga, the globally endangered elephants and leopard.
• All white eared kob and tiang migration pass through this zone.
• The area also harbor reptiles and birds of both international and regional conservation importance such as the Nile crocodile and the white pelican which flies over 2000km from Eastern Europe and Asia to reach the Sudd floodplains. The floodplains also support the largest population of shoebill stork in Africa with an estimated population of 5,000.
Threats to bio-diversity
• Illegal hunting/poaching
• Loss of habitat
• Recommendations• Total protection ---affirmative policy stance on the need for the protection of wildlife resources
• Wildlife Surveys ----Evaluation damage caused by the war and the numbers, status of surviving animals
• Policy Review ---State level, the opportunity be taken to enact a new and comprehensive basic wildlife and protected areas act---new approaches of conservation such as communal ownership of wildlife outside national parks and reserves. • Legal review ---Past legislation would have to be examined and update in the light of any policy review in order to remove anomalies and provide a proper framework for conservation and management
• Conservation Education---The education effort which began in the 80s must be restarted in order to ensure public understanding and increase the chances of public support.
Forest reserves in Upper Nile• Upper Nile state together with Unity and Jonglei State have up to sixteen gazetted forest reserves totaling to 22,518 ha• decrease in trade resulting from the civil war meant many of the forest resources left untouched• as economic activity expands in many areas as a result of the CPA, these resources are under threat of being inefficiently managed and exploited
Threats to Forestry resources
• Commercial forest exploitation
• Demand for construction materials, fuel wood and charcoal
• Encouraging and facilitating replanting of fast growing species
• Introducing improved cooking stoves that use fuel-wood
• Strengthening the capacity of State Forestry Department to oversee management and trade of forest products
Key threats to bio-diversity resources in general in Upper Nile State
• Limited policy and legislative framework for bio-diversity conservation.
• Limited institutional capacity to manage natural resources
• Decentralization in the environment sector
• Effects of development on wetlands, water resources, other sensitive areas, and on wildlife
• Movement of people into Southern Sudan
• formulation of the overall national policy on Environment to be completed
• Make budget allocations in its annual budget for capacity building
• Environmental education and awareness
• Awareness among relevant ministries within the state
• Promote sustainable agriculture including soil fertility management, use of improved seeds, weeding and spacing techniques
• Creating opportunities for legal and sustainably managed bushmeat enterprises as a way to discourage illegal, uncontrolled poaching
• Improving local planning efforts to help prepare and provide for existing population and returnees
• Provide adequate infrastructure, facilities and services for the returning and existing population.
Newer news items:
Older news items:
- MR. PETER ABDULRHAMAN SULE:A MAN OF THE PEOPLE. - 12/03/2008
- The threat of Islamic Fascists against the democratic Transformation in Sudan - 10/03/2008
- Community Land: A Critical Socio-Economic Factor To Temper With In Southern Sudan - 07/03/2008
- Slave rescue bid resumes in Sudan - 05/03/2008
- The SPLM is becoming a danger for the demise of the CPA. - 04/03/2008
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